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Although taking part in EDXC conferences is relatively new to me, I have known about them for years. No wonder, because this year it is 50 years since the EDXC – European DX Council was founded. In the years before, in the 50’es and the 60’es, there had been established quite a lot of radio clubs throughout Europe, because listening to far away radio stations at that time had become very popular on medium wave as well as on short wave. Some people decided to share their hobby with other, who had the same interest. Exchange news about equipment, antennas and heard stations. A handful of dxers from various radio clubs came up with a wish of an organization, which could take care of common interests among the clubs.
Since 1967 there has been a conference every year, except for the year 2004. All but one, which took place in Istanbul Turkey, have been held in European countries. As early as in 2013 it was decided to held the conference 2017 in Finland, for more reasons. This year is Finland's centennial, and the meeting was organized by the Finnish DX Association - 60 years in 2017 and Tampereen DX-Kuuntelijat – the local DX club, which can celebrate its 50th anniversary.
There are two purposes for attending these conferences. The one and most obvious is the radio related items and discussions; the second and not less important is the social getting together. Many dxers know each other from the name, have been in contact via snail mail, email or on social media, but have never met. They get the opportunity at the conference, is having put a face to the name, and that’s great! It happened to me several times this year.
The conference took place Aug.18th – Aug. 20th at the Varala Sports Institute, which lies very beautiful among trees on the hillsides down towards the lake Pyhäjärvi west of Tampere city center. We were all welcomed on Friday afternoon with a flag ceremony outside the institute in the lovely August sunshine; participants from 11 countries, Sweden, Russia, Poland, Germany, Denmark, United Kingdom, Belgium, France, Italy, Algeria and Finland, which was represented by the largest number. The first session took place shortly after the flag ceremony, when Anker Petersen, one of the persons, who founded EDXC back in 1967, told about the birth of the European DX Council. And after a short dinner break Risto Vähäkainu continued with a brief but history of the council.
The next issue in the programme was a special challenge for our geographical knowledge. Finnish dxer Jim Solatie brought us around the world in a quiz with tricky questions about radio stations, geographical spots and odd time zone differences. It was funny, but unfortunately none of us came out with all answers correct.
After this brain exercises we got the chance to try a real Finnish sauna, with a swim in the lake afterwards. Quite a few did! The evening continued into a welcome reception with refreshment for the little hunger and thirst, and lot of possibilities talking with friends you haven’t seen since last year’s conference.
Fog banks hung low above the lake Saturday morning, when I went for an early walk up and down the hills surrounding the institute. No wind at all but after a while the fog cleared and the sun broke through. Thus mentally ready to continue the conference I went to conference hall, where some very interesting sessions were waiting.
Ismo Kauppi hosted this morning’s session about “Key topic AM Listening” with Mr. Jon Hudson as the first speaker. He is a director at SDRplay Ltd, and also a radio amateur. Jon Hudson held an interesting lecture about the completely new way for many of us to listen to radio via a SDR (software-defined radio) receiver, a receiver connected to the internet via the computer.
Tapio Kalmi told about AM DXing in the Information Age. How much conditions for dxing have changed through the years. From normal AM radios to SDR receivers, and he also explained how to use these new tools, we have got access to via the Internet and the social medias. You don’t even need to have your own SDR receiver; you can use a remote SDR. With a webSDR many listeners are allowed to listen and tune it simultaneously, e.g. on http://sdr.hu/.
“And now we come to the weather!” The following entry was presented by Kirsti Kauristie from the Finnish Meteorological Institute. She gave us a detailed report of the ionosphere’s and other layers’ impact on the distant radio reception. At last Ms. Kauristie gave a forecast on the approaching solar minimum, which is expected 2019-2020.
While the Tampere DX Club had its 50 years club meeting, the rest of us went sightseeing by bus. The lovely wetter has changed, and it was pouring down, when we drove across Tampere. Never-the-less it ended up being a very enjoyable afternoon. Risto Vähäkainu was our guide, a good one. He told about the future infrastructural plans for the city and also mentioned the building of a new ice arena to be ready for hosting an Icehockey World Championship. We visited the antenna tower of Radio Pispalan, which is a local radio station transmitting on 729 kHz and 99.5 MHz and streaming online. Then back to the city, where we made a foot walk around the center. We took a look at the power station and the dam, where there is a fall of 18 meters between the two big lakes Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. In the meantime the rain had stopped, so we crossed the City Hall Square before entering Tampere Cathedral, a quite new church, built in 1902-1907. The last destination of this tour was the red Pyynikke Observation Tower; when we had climbed its 26 meters, it offered a nice view over the city, the lakes and forests.
This afternoon’s last session was dedicated to FM. Jukka Kotovirta, a passionate FM-dxer, told about the summer sporadic e-skip. Dxing on FM these last months has been not less than an adventure. Stations around the Mediterranean from east to west have been heard in northern Europe with exceptional good results. The director of Pispalan Radio, which antenna tower we passed on bus tour earlier this afternoon, Pasi Komsi then gave us an interesting view into the life of this local low power station, which doesn’t accept advertising. It survive by mean of voluntary assistance. Jukka Kotovirtawas also the person behind a couple of special quizzes: a competition of the best FM catches of this year, and another one on the greatest radio related songs “Video Killed the Radio Star”.
The traditional EDXC Banquet was held at the Varala Sports Institute with welcome speech by representatives from the arranging club and the city council of Tampere. The evening offered a lot of different features, such as awards to international dxers and a DX auction with funny items (a radio disguised as a teddy bear), radio related books and magazine and much more.
The last day of this year’s conference arrived with the most wonderful sunshine, showing the lake and the hills at Varala from their best side. But there was things to be done, and sessions to take part in. So we headed for the conference room and the EDXC club meeting conducted by the two chairmen Kari Kivekäs and Jan-Mikael Nurmela. They gave a brief summary of EDXC topics and also had some greetings from clubs and members, who were not present. The future plans could be taking contact to more radio clubs with the aim of getting new members. It was also mentioned that EDXC could take contact to radio stations in order to have promote the club’s work. It was not decided where to held the next EDXC Conference, but the cities Vienna and Bratislava were mentioned. Kari asked for more proposals to be welcome. Also in this meeting at 10:00 am there was one minute of silence to commemorate the victims of the Turku knife attack two days before.
With the next subject we went off to China and how to ID and get a QSL from a Chinese radio station. It was Mika Mäkeläinen, who advised us. Mika has done a lot of dxing Chinese AM stations from the dx-site in Aihkiniemi up north of Lake Inari in Lappland. He has just returned from Beijing, where he was reporter for the Finnish YLE in two years. We had the pleasure to meet one of his contacts at Anhui Radio on Facetime, and got the possibility to ask her questions directly.
After lunch Dan Goldfarb gave an interesting explanation to his website MWMASTS.com, a site covering more or less all mediumwave antenna installations in the world. Through this conference we have travelled to faraway places through lectures and quizzes, and the last feature was no exception. Toshimichi Ohtake, a wellknown dxer from Japan, took us into Listening in Japan, Past, Present and Future.
After the flag ceremoni and the obligaroty group photo it was time to say goodbye and see you next year!
Ydun Ritz (31/8-2017)



Today (23 November) is the anniversary of the new arrangements for medium wave and long wave which came into play in 1978.
Prior to 23 November 1978, in the UK, the LW and MW frequencies were as follows:

200 kHz: BBC Radio 2 (Droitwich)
647 kHz: BBC Radio 3 (Daventry, Belfast, Edinburgh, Exeter, Glasgow, Newcastle, Plymouth, Redmoss, Redruth, Swansea)
692 kHz: BBC Radio 4 (Barmstaple was on 683 kHz for a while and Swindon was on 1340 kHz for a while), Cromer, Moorside Edge, Ramsgate, Whitehaven, Swindon)
809 kHz: BBC Radio Scotland (now 810 kHz) (Burghead, Westerglen, Redmoss, Dumfries)
809 kHz: BBC World Service (Europe daytime) (Crowborough)
854 kHz: BBC Radio Blackburn (now Lancashire on 855 kHz)
881 kHz: BBC Radio Wales (now 882 kHz) (Washford, Penmon, Tywyn, Wrexham)
908 kHz: BBC Radio 4 (Brookman's Park, Clevedon, Redruth, Stagshaw, Scarborough)
998 kHz: BBC Radio Solent (now 999 kHz)
1034 kHz: BBC Radio Kent (became 1035 kHz) (also Radio Sheffield)
1052 kHz: BBC Radio 4 (Barrow, Bexhill, Droitwich, Felixtowe, Postwick, Start Point)
1088 kHz: BBC World Service (Crowborugh)
1106 kHz: BBC Radio Leeds
1214 kHz: BBC Radio 1 (Brighton, Brookman's Park, Burghead, Droitwich, Fenham, Hull, Lisnagarvey, Londonderry, Moorside Edge, Newcastle Plymouth, Postwick, Redmoss, Redruth, Wasford, Westerglen)
1295 kHz: BBC World Service (Crowborugh) (became 1296 kHz)
1340 kHz: BBC Radio Ulster (became 1341 kHz) (Lisnagarvey, Londonderry)
1458 kHz: BBC Radio London (Brookman's Park) Radio Birmingham (Sutton Coldfield), Radio Manchester (Ashton Moss), Radio Newcastle
1485 kHz: BBC Radio 1 (Bournemouth)
1485 kHz: BBC Radio 2 (Dundee, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Redmoss)
1485 kHz: BBC Radio Brighton (now Southern Counties Radio)
1485 kHz: BBC Radio Oxford (Beckley)
1485 kHz: BBC Radio Merseyside (Wallasey)
1485 kHz: BBC Radio Humberside (Hull)
1502 kHz: BBC Radio Stoke
1546 kHz: BBC Radio Bristol (became 1548 kHz) (Clevedon - now closed)
1594 kHz: BBC Radio 3 (Dundee and Bournemouth)
1594 kHz: BBC Radio Leicester (Freeman's Common)

From 23 November onwards,
Crowborugh was replaced by Orfordness. 1295 kHz moved to 1296 kHz, 1088 kHz moved to 648 kHz. The Radio Leeds frequency moved from 1107 (would have been 1107 kHz), to 774 kHz.
Radio 2 and 4 swapped places and Radio 2 was on 693 and 909 kHz (990 kHz in Tywyn Mid Wales)
The first frequency changes were for Radio 4 and World Service. Crowborugh closed at midnight on 22 November 1978. Radio 4 started on 200 kHz LW at Midnight and Radio 2 was on VHF/FM only from midnight 22 November until early hours of 23 November. Radio 1 moved from 1214 kHz (would have been 1215 kHz) to 1053 (formerly Radio 4) and 1089 kHz (formerly BBC World Service) frequencies. Radio 3 moved from 647 kHz (would have been 648 kHz) to 1215 kHz. Radio 2 and Radio 4 swapped places but not certain what was actually on 693 and 909 between Midnight and 6am on 23 November. There had previously been "test transmissions" beween 0200-0500 each night prior to the changeover (which was also broadcast on 88-91 FM). Radio 2 used to close down between 0200-0500 until 1979 when it went 24 hours a day, but Radio 1 continued to share 88-91 at various times until March 25 1990. Originally Radio 1 was a spin-off of Radio 2 and only broadcast 14 hours a day.

Strange that Brian Mathew told listeners to retune to 88-91 FM - still the home of Radio 2 today - to carry on listening. I know this is a MW news site, but it seems rather odd that the BBC encouraged people to switch back to MW once they had tuned in on FM that night.

It would take another 12 years before Radio 2 ceased on MW, when Radio 5 started.
In a previous frequency change in 1972, Radio 2 was on 1546 kHz prior to the IBA taking it for Capital Radio, Radio City and various other ILRs from 1973 onwards. The former Light Programme frequency of 1151 kHz was used for LBC, Picadilly Radio and various other ILR services from 1973-4.
Freeman's Common eventually moved to 837 kHz,
Hope you find this useful.
James Robinson (23/11-2016)



During my holiday, the first two weeks of September, I had the opportunity of visiting the USA. And of course a small worldreceiver was part of my luggage.

While in western Europe many broadcasters are leaving the mediumwave, in the USA it seems that broadcasting via AM still is profitable. Even in the by commercial radio dominated radiomarket. I have not done serious DX-ing or so, but was now and then to be able for some listening on my AM radio, a Sangean ATS 303, switched from the 9 Khz European channel spacing into the 10 Khz, suitable for the USA. The radio covers up then from 520 Khz. up to 1710 Khz.

AM radio is a megaphone.
My first stop was in a hotel near the “Big Apple” in Newark. The famous 77 WABC is still on. Of course not anymore as a leading top 40 music station, that era is passed away already since 1982, but as NewsTalkRadio 77 WABC. Music is very seldom heard anymore on AM these days. The market is dominated by newstalk, sports en phone-in shows. Also religious station are there. Here and there also foreign languages like Spanish and even Chinese.
Only around the city of New York I picked up around 30 stations.
By WCBS on 880 first I thought something was wrong whit the modulation of the station. A error in the digital feederline or so. The speech sounds like if somebody is talking / screaming through a megaphone. But I heard this type of modulation on more stations, so it must be a deliberate type of sounding, so that your station strikes the listeners as the first. WCBS sends a non-stop newscast program. Every ten minutes starting all over again. The newsfacts are shorten in like a Twitter message, short quotes and whit a high content of gossip in it. After every item the announcer tells that you’re listening to WCBS 880 in New York. And then commercials are coming in. I think a type of radio that most European listeners will not appreciate at all.

Clear channel.
Since the beginning of broadcasting via the AM the USA, Canada en Mexico have a clear channel policy. Shortly, one station is the only user of a certain frequencie. During the dark hour propagation such a station will cover then interferenc free reception over wider areas. Mostly these, so called class A, stations are using the maximum allowed output of 50 Kw.
During the nightly hours the other channels are a wonderfull mix of many stations. Probably a eldorado for picking different stations on one frequencie from different locations depending on the direction of your arial and the variations in propagation paths.
One night I picked up on a clear channel, around 10 PM, in the outher city of Baltimore in Maryland, KMOX 1120, The Voice of St. Louis. Covering 4 states over a distance from around 1300 km’s.

Digital radio.
In the USA there’s also a development in digital radio via terrestrial traditional AM en FM frequencies. While in Europe DAB + via frequencies around 200 Mhz is in progress, in the USA the standard seems to gonna be a subcarrier technology via the analoge FM en AM band. The term is HD radio. Stations broadcast there standerdprogramma also in HD and different, mostly music, channels are also available. For example a special rock music channel. Also AM station has services in HD. Left or right, or both, of the original AM channel the well known DRM hissss is then audible. Sometimes a HD channel of a AM station is distributed via a sister station on the FM band. So a remarkable difference in developments in digital radio between both sides of the Ocean.
Willem Prins (4/10-2016)



The end of an broadcasting era in The Netherlands.

On August 31th a broadcasting era in The Netherlands will, more ore less, ending. On that date the Dutch public radio will leave AM definitely. The transmitters on 747 and 1251, from the oldies station NPO Radio 5 Nostalgia, will be switched off.

Radiobroadcasting on long- and mediumwave related frequencies and in AM technology in Holland did start on the 6 th of November 1919. A Dutch ingeneer with the name Hanso Henricus Schotanus a Idzerda made five years long, four days per week, an evening broadcast. That was from The Hague on 670 mtr. Do lack of money he finally was forced to stop his experiments. A Dutch industrial, Nederlandse Seintoestellenfabriek (NSF), later Philips Telecommunicatie, took over the roll of broadcaster.
The firm build radio’s. For stimulating the retail of their radio receivers, permanent broadcasts were created. The programmes werd commercialy based. In the twenties the Dutch government only made it possible for public broadcasting to make radio in The Netherlands.
A transmittersite was build in the centre of The Netherlands, near the city of Utrecht.

A long wave transmitter, power 120 Kw, frequencie 160 Khz / 1875 mtr. was in use. Later the transmittersite was replaced to the well known historical location Radio Kootwijk. In 1933 Holland became during a conference in Luzern an allocation for 223 Khz / 1345 mtr. This frequencie is never used. Brasov - Hungary also started on 160 Khz. in 1939. In the evening hours there was a lot of interference. A new radioconference in 1940 in Montreux an allocation was given out for The Netherlands on 726 and 843 Khz. During the war 160 stayed in use. A second channel was the 722 Khz / 415.5 mtr. At the end of the war the Germans blew up the 160 Khz. transmitter. Rebuild by the Dutch whit a 15 Kw. unit. The site was switched off in 1950.

In the meantime two mediumwave channels became in use after the war. That was 1007 Khz and 746. I remember listening as a youngster to those main frequencies of Hilversum. Living in the northern part of the Netherlands, reception was reasonable from both 120 Kw. stations near Lopik. In the eveninghours 1007 always fading up and down. The 746 had a lot of zerobeat interference from a station out of the former DDR. In 1978 there was the change into the 9 KHz. spacing on long and mediumwave. Both channels went up 1 Khz., to 1008 and (Jumbo)747 KHz. New transmitters and a new site came in use in 1980. Also the power was much more, 400 Kw. each. Both channels from that moment good and almost interference free, at my location.

Until 2003 the national information program Radio 1 was broadcasted via the 1008. During the summerholidays many Dutch holidayspenders all over Europe had the possibility to listen to a popular daily news summery program at 23.00 hours. After 2003 the transmitter is hired to commercial users. Nowadays a christen gospel station Groot Nieuws Radio is on. Still audible all over Europe every night.

In daytime hours the 747 also was a good contact whit Dutch radio for trucker and cardrivers. The signal covers as far as the former east German border, into the north of French and around the North Sea. I remember during my vacation a better reception, on my R-1000 and a long wire, of Radio 5 in the coastal areas of Denmark than at my home location, for example.

When Radio 1 stopped using the 1008 KHz. protest where heard. But the availability of a nationwide good coverage on FM was the alternative. That is different when 747 is switched off as from the 1th of Septembre. NPO Radio 5 Nostalgia is not on FM. Obviously the switch off has anything to do whit the high costs from a powerfull mediumwave transmitter, it seems to be 1.2 million Euro yearly. The last 5 to 10 years even many mediumwavesites are already closed, everybody knows. Somewhat curious is the fact that 20% of the target audience, the generation that grew up whit mediumwave and fan of the oldie station Radio 5, still uses the 747. So an estimate audience of 200.000 listereners loses their signal. At least as they do not switch over to alternatives like cable, internet, or to DAB +.

Anyhow, the disappearance of the last public radiochannel from mediumwave here in Holland gives me a somewhat nostalgic sad feeling. The end of an era.

What is left are a few commercial and a christian, mostly low power, mediumwave stations in Holland. Whit the only exception the 1008 whit Groot Nieuws Radio, license for daytime 400 Kw,and nighttime 200. But probably for reducing the energy costst on whit 100 Kw. Location the Flevopolder. And there is the relay of Radio 538, Hollands most popular radiostation, on 891 Khz., 22 Kw, from Emmaberg in the southern tip of The Netherlands near Maastricht. I pick up the station in the dark hours here at my homebase, in the northern part of the Netherlands, whit a reasonable signalstrenght. Some co-channel interference on the background and sidesplatter from RAI – Milano. But never the less, also for holidayspenders around The Netherlands, in the eveninghours still a common voice on your world receiver.
Willem Prins, Haren, The Netherlands (30/8-2015)



963 and 972 kHz re-awarded to Sunrise Radio.
Local commercial radio licence award: Greater London AM
The re-advertised FM [should read AM] local commercial radio licence for the Greater London area was re-awarded on 14 April 2015 to the incumbent licensee, Sunrise Radio (London) Ltd (broadcasting as Sunrise Radio).Greater London AM licence award decision.
Before consideration of each of the four statutory criteria the Broadcast Licensing Committee (BLC) noted the published responses from four applicants to questions from Ofcom concerning the financial viability of AM broadcasting in relation to music programming and the challenges likely to be faced by broadcasters over the next twelve years term of this licence (AM being a waveband with an audio quality not best suited to music).
From the evidence presented in these responses the BLC was content that a music service on AM could be viable in this case.
The BLC also considered more general programming aspects proposed by applicants. Here the BLC considered the scale of the London radio market and the nature of niche broadcasting programming proposals from all six applicants would have the effect of overcoming at least some of the likely pressures on financial viability.
The Committee considered each application in turn against the four statutory criteria, and noted that the differences between them were often very close, with fine margins in certain areas of comparison.
In considering the ability of the applicants to maintain their proposed services, the Committee considered that each applicant excluding the incumbent (Sunrise Radio is currently providing the service) had demonstrated access to adequate levels funding necessary to launch their proposed service. In considering ongoing broadcasting plans, i.e. after launch and in the medium term, the BLC felt that not all of the applicants were able to demonstrate robust financial performance forecasts amid a reasonable assessment of market growth and appropriate level of operating costs. BLC felt that these applicants would benefit from being less exposed to the risks associated with various financial, trading and competition challenges that a licensee might be expected to encounter. The BLC considered that Sunrise Radio had demonstrated robust financial plans and realistic audience projections based on an audience retained over the previous licence term. This the Committee felt, was an indication that Sunrise Radio could reasonably be expected to deliver the stability necessary to maintain the service for the duration of the licence.In considering catering for tastes and interests of persons living in the locality, BLC’s view was that each applicant put forward cases of similar strength but noted that the research which formed part of Sunrise Radio’s application highlighted respondents’ rating of programme elements through a scale indicating how the existing service caters for personal tastes and interests. This degree of listener satisfaction was underpinned by the station’s RAJAR audience research which indicated that listeners tuned to the radio station in sizeable numbers. The combination of both sets of data suggested that Sunrise Radio’s retained audience was being catered for in terms of having their tastes and interests met through the station’s broadcasts.The Committee then went on to consider how each applicant proposed to broaden the range of programmes available among local (analogue) commercial radio services in the Greater London area. The BLC noted that the service proposed by Sunrise Radio and Share Radio would broaden the range available to listeners to a greater extent than those whose proposals, by virtue of a chosen wider age range (as the core target audience), would have been more likely to overlap with existing services in the area. These latter proposals contrasted with the incumbent’s application, which maintained 34 years-old as the upper end of its target age range, unchanged from the current licence period. Sunrise Radio’s proposals ensured that the range of listeners to be served would not be narrowed. It was further noted by the BLC that, in considering this statutory criterion, Share Radio would have broadened choice by the greatest degree by virtue of the unique type of content it proposed to broadcast.Finally the Committee considered the evidence of demand and support put forward by each applicant for their proposed service. Here, each applicant made a case through their research that their proposed service would meet listener demand. Each applicant also indicated a level of support from persons living in the area. Sunrise Radio’s research, beyond its RAJAR audience analysis, showed to some degree how listeners had stayed loyal to the Sunrise brand. The research also indicated that listeners valued the different programme elements broadcast by the radio station.The following pages set out the statutory requirements relating to radio licensing, and details of the licensing process. Further information about these, and detailed information relating to the applications for the re-advertised Greater London AM licence, can be found at: http://licensing.ofcom.org.uk/radio-broadcast-licensing/analogue-radio/apply-for-licence/re-advertisement/Statutory requirements relating to radio licensingIn carrying out all of its functions, Ofcom is required to have regard to the general duties set out in section 3 of the Communications Act 2003. In addition, under section 85(2)(b) of the Broadcasting Act 1990, it is the duty of Ofcom to do all that it can to secure the provision within the UK of a range and diversity of local radio services.'Localness'Section 314(1) of the Communications Act 2003 requires Ofcom to carry out its functions in relation to local sound broadcasting services in the manner that it considers is best calculated to secure:that programmes consisting of or including local material are included in such services but, in the case of each such service, only if and to the extent (if any) that Ofcom considers appropriate in that case; andthat, where such programmes are included in such a service, what appears to Ofcom to be a suitable proportion of them consists of locally-made programmes.Applicants for the Greater London AM licence were invited to set out in the 'Format' section of their application the amount of local material and the proportion of locally-made programmes that they intend to provide, and to support their proposals with evidence of demand and/or support. Ofcom considered on the basis of each application whether the amount of local material included was appropriate, and whether the proportion of locally-made programmes was suitable, for that particular service proposal. Our published localness guidance
(http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/broadcasting/radio/localness/) provides advice on how we consider that these statutory requirements should be met, although applicants are free to submit proposals offering more or less 'localness' as they regard as appropriate. We encouraged applicants for this licence to submit proposals which include realistic, appropriate and deliverable amounts of locally-made programming and local material. It should be noted that "locally-made programmes" in this context refers to programmes produced and presented from within the licensed area of a station, from within an 'approved area', or from a location that has already been approved as part of an existing agreed co-location arrangement (see the localness guidance for further information).
Specific local licence award criteriaIn considering the applications it receives for local commercial radio licences, Ofcom is required to have regard to each of the statutory criteria set out in section 105 of the Broadcasting Act 1990. These are as follows:(a) the ability of each of the applicants for the licence to maintain, throughout the period for which the licence would be in force, the service which he proposes to provide; (b) the extent to which any such proposed service would cater for the tastes and interests of persons living in the area or locality for which the service would be provided, and, where it is proposed to cater for any particular tastes and interests of such persons, the extent to which the service would cater for those tastes and interests; (c) the extent to which any such proposed service would broaden the range of programmes available by way of local services to persons living in the area or locality for which it would be provided, and, in particular, the extent to which the service would cater for tastes and interests different from those already catered for by local services provided for that area or locality; and (d) the extent to which there is evidence that, amongst persons living in that area or locality, there is a demand for, or support for, the provision of the proposed service. The legislation does not rate these requirements in order of priority, but it may be that Ofcom will regard one or more of the criteria as being particularly important in view of the characteristics of the licence to be awarded and the applications for it.
Process for assessment of applications:
The Greater London AM licence was fully re-advertised on 5 August 2014.
By the closing-date of 11 November 2014 six applications were received, as follows:
Asian Fx Limited
London Air Radio (Masti Radio)
Lyca Media II Limited (Lyca Voice)
Sabras Radio Limited
Share Radio Limited
Sunrise Radio (London) Ltd
The membership of Ofcom's Broadcast Licensing Committee (BLC) for this licence award was as follows: 
Glyn Mathias, (Deputy Chair) Content Board Member
Peter Davies, Director, Content Policy 
Tony Close, Director of Content, Standards, Licensing & Enforcement
The applications were circulated among all members of the BLC as well as among relevant Ofcom colleagues. Copies of the non-confidential sections of the applications were made available for public scrutiny on the Ofcom website, and public comment on the local radio needs of listeners in the area, and the type of programme service required, was invited both at the time of the licence advertisement and on the day after the applications were received.Each applicant was invited to respond, within a two-week period, to written questions of clarification and/or amplification on aspects of their proposals. The non-confidential questions and responses were subsequently made available for public scrutiny on the Ofcom website.In line with Ofcom's published procedures, each application was assessed under each of the four statutory criteria contained in section 105 of the Broadcasting Act 1990. These assessments provided an indicative picture of the perceived strengths and weaknesses of each application, and were used for guidance only. A summary of the assessments was presented to the BLC at its 14 April 2015 meeting, as part of a paper which summarised the issues of relevance for each application under each of the statutory criteria. The information included in this paper was drawn both from the applications and the subsequent responses to questions of clarification and/or amplification.
Hansjoerg Biener (5/5-2015)



Owners Are Investing in the Future of AM
‘Broadcasters do not invest this kind of money in AM radio stations unless they project a long-term return on their investment,’ Tom King writes. Shown (see link) is a recently constructed dual 50 kW directional antenna facility for Bell Media in Vancouver, B.C., Canada, including the transmitter building and two-tower self-supported tower array, and an open panel and shelf phasing and matching system for the second five-tower directional array.

It seems that AM radio is being redefined. What we knew in the 20th century as antenna-to-antenna AM terrestrial radio is now described, post-millennium, as “program content delivery.” As a result of rapidly expanding technologies, the role of terrestrially delivered AM radio has been framed increasingly as an inferior media, old fashioned and irrelevant.
I want to set the record straight.

From the perspective of an AM radio antenna system manufacturer who works with AM broadcasters every day, I can say that broadcast station owners in the U.S. and abroad are investing in the future of AM analog and digital radio. Why is this? The model of a free single point source of information to the masses is still needed, and still works.

AM radio propagation is unique from FM radio and television, in that it propagates along the ground as well as via ionospheric skywave bounce at night, which is the reason that I often listen to WCBS in New York City, WWL in New Orleans, WSB in Atlanta and WSM in Nashville, “The Legend,” the Grand Ole Opry’s famous station.

Simulcasting with FM does not replace the nighttime coverage you get with AM stations.
I was just speaking recently with Saul Levine, owner of KMZT(AM) in Beverly Hills, which operates on 1260 kHz with a Kintronic Labs 20 kw DA-D and 7.5 kw DA-N wideband phasing and matching system, about his experiences as an AM radio station owner and operator. He has been using a classical music program format on analog AM for several years, and has found it to be very successful in the L.A. market.
In fact, he informed me that he frequently receives calls from listeners who live in the canyon suburbs of L.A. and want to express their great appreciation for the fact that they are able to receive his station even when FM reception is impossible.

Levine emphasized that he is successful with AM radio because he gives people what they want to hear. He thinks AM has a bright future.

In 2010, my company Kintronic Labs was involved in supplying a 50kw AM directional antenna system for a new metro D.C. radio station, starting in a farm field. As envisioned, this station was to serve a targeted demographic that was not, at the time, being reached by radio at all. Today, this multi-million dollar is yielding yielding dividends. Figure 1 includes photographs of the three-tower array and the transmitter building supplied by Kintronic Labs.

Another example of a recent major AM radio investment we were involved with, to much success, took place across the border in Vancouver, British Columbia. A two-tower, 50 kw AM station and a five-tower, 50 kw AM station were placed on the same site, again starting from scratch, in an alfalfa field. Our company was grateful for the opportunity to participate in what proved to be a well-managed and exceptional team effort to implement this complex project.

Both stations were designed for analog or digital AM radio operation. Broadcasters do not invest this kind of money in AM radio stations unless they project a long-term return on their investment. Figure 2 includes photographs of the transmitter building and the 2-tower directional array and a photograph of the open panel and shelf phasing and matching system for the 5-tower directional array, installed in the transmitter building.

With the demise of DAB radio in Canada, the Canadian broadcasters are turning more and more to AM and FM terrestrial radio, particularly to compete with U.S. stations as HD becomes more commonplace.

At the moment, Kintronic Labs is involved with AM radio customers in the design, supply, installation and commissioning of new analog or digital-ready AM transmission facilities in various states domestically and in numerous countries worldwide. When you listen to the difference between analog and digital AM radio and analog and digital FM radio, AM stands out.

This is why we see digital AM radio as remaining a player in the future. Whether the station is analog or digital, what drives the decisions for new investment in AM radio is the demand for unique programming to an un-served targeted audience in growing markets.

I hope that this provides you, the reader, with a more encouraging perspective regarding the future of AM radio. There are many more success stories like the examples above, in which AM radio broadcasters are providing reliable free news, information, sports and entertainment to their respective communities across the United States.

Radio World by Tom F. King (president of Kintronic Labs Inc.) August 22, 2012 via Mike Terry, mwdx yg (23/8-2012) 



Just as it has been announced: Wolfsheim 1017 kHz went off at 21:59:56 UT, Mühlacker 576 kHz at 22:00:03, provided the time pips uncovered on 1017, originating from an unid. distant transmitter (on 576 Spain became audible in the moments after) were accurate. I have both closures on the same tape, wow. Of course 666 kHz went off, too, by 2200, as it did already for years every evening, just this time for good. Not much to say about 828 kHz, it was just a mess here anyway.

The closure took place in about the most shabby way possible, especially considering that it was the end of SWR cont.ra as well, which will be relaunched and as of tomorrow broadcast as SWR Info. Already the style of the announcement just made me vomit, kind of thinking how lucky I am that I have not to withness that via mediumwave.

So what was on air for the last minutes: The last program item ended at 2155, an in fact quite interesting talk about Nazi ideology. After that a standard canned announcement has been played that hereby SWR cont.ra ends its broadcast day and ARD Infonacht will take over now. This was followed by cheapish fill music from the audio design, plonking away
until being faded out immediately before 2200. A few moments of open carrier and this was it then.

It appears that during the last days the audio circuit to Mühlacker was already dead, since 576 suddenly run about three seconds behind 666 and 1017, indicating the use of the satellite signal instead. A deliberate change, when just days were left until they would turn off the whole stuff anyway, would be quite a surprise.

It should be pointed out that the three main facilities (Mühlacker, Rohrdorf and Wolfsheim) have been upgraded with new solid-state transmitters in the last years. In the case of Mühlacker this happened as recently as in 2010, and it was done because they wanted to get rid of the old S 4003 as aux transmitter and use the Nautel solid-state from the nineties as aux instead. Plain luxury, other facilities like Wiederau on 783 kHz simply have no aux transmitters anymore. Substantial amounts of licence fee payer's money have been thrown out of the window this way.

But perhaps the closure of the mediumwave transmitters is a panic action, since it appears that this decision has been made at the same time when plans for substantial cuts in the programming budget emerged. Here the plan is to leave the pop stations SWR 3 and Das Ding basically untouched but to cut 15 percent at SWR 1, 20 percent at SWR 4 and a
whooping 25 percent at the culture program SWR 2:
Really nice times for broadcasting in Germany!
Kai Ludwig via dxld yg (8/1-2012)



Manx Radio is in a self-confessed “precarious position” as it reports another massive trading loss for the last financial year in a statement to be placed before Tynwald tomorrow.

Figures contained in the 30-page annual report covering the year ended March 31 2011 show that the radio station has required just short of £1 million to survive as it competes in the local media sector.

The figures show that its revenue - generated almost entirely by advertising - has fallen by £40,000, requiring a government “subvention” of £961,050 for it to continue broadcasting.

Surprisingly, a summary of the accounts by Radio Manx Ltd chairman David North says that the station lost just £25,806 during the year. The “subvention” was added into the company’s total turnover figures to balance against operating expenses of £2,072,915.

However, Mr North does not shy away from admitting that Manx Radio cannot sustain the same level of public services in the future.

“I should state, quite clearly, that our staff . . cannot be expected to deliver the same level of public services in the future as we continue to face a steady decline in station revenue.

“Analysis of the most recent three years of audited accounts clearly shows the company has reached a crossroads.”

He said that the station’s revenue has reduced year on year “due to the proliferation of Island-based companies who depend upon selling advertising to exist.” This includes the two privately owned Isle of Man radio stations - Energy FM and 3FM - neither of which receives a subvention from government.

Mr North added that the government subvention to Manx Radio for the existing financial year had also been reduced, forcing the station to further reduce its operating costs with full time staffing levels having been cut by from 35 to 26.

Concluding his statement, Mr North says that the Manx Radio board of directors is now seeking government commitment “ to revert to the previously agreed subvention funding”.
He added, “This is fundamental if the company is to maintain the station’s current public service output and also allow the company to plan for the future.”

Manx Radio has considerable support from listeners and has regularly achieved a top three position in terms of a quarterly audience reach survey. However, the station also has a number of critics and some politicians have consistently argued against continuing the ongoing annual subvention to one radio station whilst the others - and other commercial news and media services - receive no such financial assistance.

The Manx Radio report highlights that a number of new media companies have started competing in the local market for advertising revenue in the last seven years, including bus advertising, isleofman.com, 3FM and various publications from Keith Uren Publishing.

Previously, it says that there were only five or six main players in the market, including Isle of Man Newspapers, Mannin Media, Yellow Pages, airport and sea terminal advertising and a fledgling Energy FM.

The subject of government being commercially active in the open market competing with privately owned businesses in a wide range of areas - such as printing, retail and media - is likely to be the source of much debate on the floor of Tynwald in the near future.

(I have fond memories of listening to this station on medium wave in the 60s - Mike)
http://www.isleofman.com/News/article.aspx?article=40168 via Mike Terry, mwdx yg 17/10-2011)



Taking advantage of the "tail" of the mini geo-magnetic storm we had in the past week, I could experiment unique conditions (unique... for me at least) since I'm in this hobby "full time" (for five years).
On the night of the 29th roughly between 00:30 and 01:30 (UTC), several Brazilians showed up along with a few usual Venezuelans and Colombians. Surprisingly, there was almost no   Cubans except for the 1180's Rebelde heard at a good level. No Mexicans were observed. Spain wasn't good either.
To be honest, this is the first time in the last months where I had something really exciting dx wise going on. Most of the Brazilians were personal first. As for Trans-Atlantic dx, Canary Islands and Western Africa were in as well. After taking time to review my hard disc, here are some loggings taken from that span along with some recordings.

621 KHz CANARY ISLANDS, "...En Radio Nacional",  Excellent (00:40 SN-QC)  http://www.quebecdx.com/mp3/canary_islands_621.mp3
670 KHz HONDURAS (Tentative) La Voz de Honduras, unid location - Man in Spanish with Honduras mentions (00:42 SN-QC) *personal first
711 KHz MOROCCO, RTM A, various locations - Trad Arabic music, fair and offset (around 20 Hz down) (00:39 SN-QC)
750 KHz VENEZUELA, YVKS-RCR, Caracas - Baseball talk in Spanish, good (00:40 SN-QC)
760 KHz COLOMBIA, HJAJ-RCN, Baranquilla - "...A través de RCN", fair (00:37 SN-QC)
780 KHz BRAZIL, Unid - Soccer play-by-play in Portuguese, fair (00:39 SN-QC) 
http://www.quebecdx.com/mp3/brazil_unid_780.mp3 *personal first
783 KHz MAURITANIA, Radio Mauritanie, Nouakchott - Man and woman in a Vernacular language, good (00:39 SN-QC)
860 KHz BRAZIL, ZYJ459-Rádio CBN, Rio de Janeiro - Soccer play-by-play in PP, fair to good  and // to webstream. Surprisingly on top of CJBC (01:05 SN-QC) 
http://www.quebecdx.com/mp3/brazil_zyj459_860.mp3 *personal first
900 KHz BRAZIL, Unid - Soccer play-by-play in Portuguese, fair to good (01:13 SN-QC)
http://www.quebecdx.com/mp3/brazil_unid_900.mp3 *personal first
910 KHz VENEZUELA, YVRQ-Q910, Caracas - Ads of Venezuela in Spanish, good (00:29 SN-QC)
940 KHz BRAZIL, ZYJ453-Super Rádio Brasil, Rio de Janeiro - Men in Portuguese // to their webstream, good (00:24 SN-QC)
http://www.quebecdx.com/mp3/brazil_zyj453_940_riodejaneiro.mp3  *personal first
980 KHz BRAZIL, ZYH707-Rádio Nacional, Brasília - Soccer play-by-play in Portuguese, up to a fair level (01:12 SN-QC) http://www.quebecdx.com/mp3/brazil_980_brasilia.mp3
1000 KHz COLOMBIA, HJAQ, "...Para todo el grupo de RCN", Cartagena - Fair (00:30 SN-QC)
1008 KHz CANARY ISLANDS (probable), Punto Radio, Las Palmas (Gran Canaria) - Talk in Spanish, good (00:26 SN-QC)
1088 KHz ANGOLA, Radio Nacional, Mulenvos - Music, poor (00:31 SN-QC)
1100 KHz BRAZIL, ZYK694-Rádio Globo - PP soccer play-by-play with Globo mention, fair on top of WTAM (01:09 SN-QC)
1150 KHz BRAZIL, Unid - Man in Portuguese, fair (00:26 SN-QC)
http://www.quebecdx.com/mp3/brazil_unid_1150.mp3  *personal first
1170 KHz COLOMBIA, Unid - Men with deportes with a couple of references to Colombia,
up to fair level (00:41 SN-QC)
1200 KHz BRAZIL, Unid - Soccer play-by-play in PP, up to fair mixed w domestics (01:11 SN-QC) http://www.quebecdx.com/mp3/brazil_unid_1200.mp3 *personal first
1220 KHz BRAZIL, ZYJ458-Rádio Globo, Rio de Janeiro - Ads in Portuguese with full ID at the end, excellent (00:28 SN-QC)
I'm particularly happy with this next recording:
1300 KHz BRAZIL, ZYH586, Rádio Iracema, Fortaleza - Religious program in both Portuguese & Spanish, up to a fair level and offset at around +80 Hz. Thanks to Rocco Cotroneo, Chuck Hutton and Jean Burnell at RealDX for their help (01:10 SN-QC)
http://www.quebecdx.com/mp3/brazil_zyh586_1300.mp3 *personal first
1310 KHz DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, HIMH-Radio Real, La Vega - Short fair peaks
fortunately with some ID content "...a través de la nueva Vega" with mention of República Dominicana (01:10 SN-QC)
http://www.quebecdx.com/mp3/dominican_republic_himh_1310.mp3 *personal first
Sylvain Naud, Portneuf, QC Canada via mwdx yg (2/10-2011)



I'm back from a trip to a place I last visited almost 17 years ago. When I stepped off the train at Themar at 10:40 CET and flipped out the radio the signal bars already no longer lit up, the 882 kHz transmitter has been turned off around 10 AM (0800 UT).

The bus driver asked what's actually going on. On a first round in the morning he already had four passengers to Wachenbrunn, something that otherwise just never happens. Apparently I was not the only person who went out to the transmitter site for the occasion.

And what told the local people, amongst them a pensioner who once worked as gatewoman on the transmitter station and said how ridiculously tight the controls were: The grounds of the old station have simply been sold. Gossip has it that someone wants to use them for a solar power plant. It is understood that the two pipe masts will be destroyed soon, and the
old transmitter buildings will perhaps face the same fate.

When I arrived shortly before noon the 882 kHz antenna was already grounded and the work to remove the equipment under way. They banged on one mast that it could be heard over hundreds of metres, making one wonder if they are trying to overturn the antenna immediately.

Some vans parked around the transmitter container (which is not there yet on the Google aerial images, they date back to a point where still the ex-Erfurt 1947 vintage transmitter was in use). So perhaps by now the transmission equipment is already gone to whatever other location (if so, apparently not the 1323 kHz facility).

Meanwhile the traces of the former feedline from the transmitter buildings to the Kvadrat antenna are almost gone. Next to the former transmitter building they can still be recognized if one knows what was there, but further on anything is overgrown now. The Kvadrat itself is of course interesting (and now I know that my camera works properly even when one gets a megawatt of RF blown around the ears, by standing just some dozen metres away from the antenna on its northwestern side to which it radiates during daytime). The new 1323 kHz transmitter building is nondescript but can't be called a disappointment, the fans clearly signal the presence of a working 1000 kW transmitter.

On this occasion I could also observe how the practice to use the 310 degrees angle of the Kvadrat until 5 PM and then switch it to 220 degrees (the southwestern angle) apparently is still in force. At 16:59 (1459 UT) there was a carrier break of about 10...12 seconds which
perfectly fits the listed parameters.

The moment of melancholy was when I sat in the train back towards Meiningen and the two pipe masts one more time appeared in sight, up there over the valley of the Werra river, until they finally disappeared behind the trees. This time for good.
Kai Ludwig, dxld yg (5/7-2011)



As I write this, the sun has just set over the Frisian harbour town of Harlingen, in The Netherlands.
I'm staying the night in a delightful hotel in the centre of town, and the view out my window is the one above, gently winking navigation lights on the little entry into the harbour, and sailing ships everywhere. Early tomorrow I will take a supply boat out to the Radio Waddenzee / Radio Seagull ship, Jenni Baynton, anchored 10km off the coast in the centre of the Waddenzee, an area of the North Sea partly protected by a string of islands. I'll try
to blog regularly while on board, but as always this is dependent on mobile signal and everything working well, so it may be patchy.
I've had an unusually leisurely trip this time round, giving myself an extra day, which allowed me to fly at a civilised hour, and take the time to enjoy Harlingen before rushing out to sea. And it is a beautiful place, and very thought-provoking.
The first thing that strikes me is how utterly central to the town the sea and boats are. Unlike Ireland, where marinas are generally away from the town, and often semi-private and exclusive, here the waterways are part of the fabric of the town, everywhere you look there are boats old and new, and the people . . they are old and new too.
There are just as many teenagers afloat as adults, and normal families and grizzled old men in beat-up cars rub shoulders with the more well off. The boat, in Harlingen, is classless and timeless.
And it's so busy.
Looking out to sea as the sun fell boats were dotted along the safe channel out of Harlingen like cars on a motorway, the swing and lift bridges in the centre of town are constantly moving, and groups of people are sitting and socialising in large numbers on many boats.
We're a strange animal.
We have a unique capacity to get enjoyment from things whose original designed purpose was not enjoyment. Boats were built as a mode of transporting people and goods over water, a simple functional solution to an engineering and logistical problem, yet which one of us does not feel a glow of . . specialness . . when we set foot on a boat?
What is it about being on a floating object that inspires so much passion, and gives so much enjoyment to the human?
I remember once hearing an analysis of a poem written about the beach at Dover that talked about our love of zones of intersection - where the water meets the land, where the sky meets the sea, where the inner meets the outer, where the male meets the female.
I think there is a lot to be said for this, and perhaps the magic of boats and the sea is that you can not only experience the boundary of water and land, but in a way transgress it . . be beyond the limit, beyond the edge of land, on the water, but not in it.
And then there is the horizon, the boundary of sky and earth towards which every explorer has been driven. Nowhere can you better see the horizon, in all its clarity, than at sea.
To stand, at the highest point on the top of a ship's bridge, or up its mast, is to see the wholly perfect horizon around you in full 360 degrees, with your own self at the perfect centre of it.
Confirmation that you are the centre of the world? Perhaps that is what is so alluring . .
I sail at dawn for my own horizon. We shall talk again!
Steve Conway, WordPress.com 1 June 2011

See http://steveconway.wordpress.com/2011/06/01/pre-sailing-thoughts/ for
Steve's wonderful photos and much more.
Details about Radio Seagull are here http://www.radioseagull.com/news.html
Mike Terry via mwdx yg (2/6-2011)



From Steve Conway's blog (abbreviated & UK times so one hour ahead of UTC/GMT):
This Easter Radio Caroline celebrates its 47th birthday with an 11-day long live broadcast from the Ross Revenge, the pirate ship that was my home for so many action-packed years offshore in the 1980s.

Starting at 7am on Good Friday and running right though until midnight on May Day Bank Holiday Monday all shows will be coming live from the ship, which is currently berthed in the secure shipping terminal at Tilbury, Essex. . You'll be able to tune in as usual via SKY 0199 and our web streams (and via UPC cable in Ireland). However we will also be broadcasting to south Essex and north Kent for the duration on 531 kHz AM.

All crew will live onboard for the duration, and I'm thrilled to be involved in this event, although due to other work commitments I can only stay on board for a week as opposed to the full 11 days. But there will be plenty to listen to for the whole broadcast, including special features in addition to the station's unique album format.

The Birthday Bash will also include the annual Radio Caroline Support Group Membership Drive. There'll be free gifts for those who join or make a minimum donation, one of which is an exclusive T Shirt only available for the duration of the broadcast.

A couple of the highlights of the broadcast are 60s Caroline DJ Tom Lodge's Favourite Intro Guitar Riffs and a special classic albums of the 60's & 70's show which will be hosted by myself.

I will be live on Caroline every night for the week, starting with a 9pm-midnight show on Good Friday.
My show times as below:
Good Friday April 22nd - 9pm to midnight
Saturday April 23rd - 10pm to midnight
Easter Sunday April 24th - midnight to 3am (i.e. early hours Monday morning)
Easter Monday April 25th - 4pm to 7pm (on AM only, not Satelitte/cable)
Tuesday April 26th - 9pm to midnight with special 60s and 70s album show (listeners best albums)
Wednesday April 27th - 9pm to midnight
Thursday April 28th - 9pm to midnight

It'll be my first time living on board the Ross in more than a decade, and I'm looking forward to the intensity of creative juices that this unusual environment engenders, along with the company of good companions. I have never yet stepped off that ship after a stint on board without being changed in some way, and long may it continue.
(photos at link)
There are also many listeners worldwide - station website for 24/7 365 day coverage - www.radiocaroline.co.uk
Mike Terry, dxld yg (14/4-2011)



Interesting article in the Washington Post about the rebel radio in Behghazi (on 675):
I notice it says the radio began broadcasting at 2 p.m. local time on 21 February. This neatly matches Tarek Zeidan's obervations at the time. Tarek reported to this group that he heard 675 under Qadhafi control on the morning of the 21st but that it had switched sides by the time he listened again in the evening.
On the precise name of the station, although it was initially IDing as Radio Free Libya, at BBCM we are listening to 675 each evening and now consistently hear it ID as Voice of Free Libya. It is carrying all sorts of very interesting programming. Anyone can phone in, including pro-Qadhafi callers, who are put on air but politely told by the presenter that they are wrong. There are messages to the people of Tripoli telling them not to despair because victory is near.
It's all fascinating material. One announcement tonight said: "Benina airport will be re-opened soon to receive aircraft carrying relief and aid products. Citizens are requested to refrain from opening fire on the airport, except in coordination with the relevant parties."
Chris Greenway UK via dxld yg (1/3-2011)




TOBRUK, Libya -- Before going live for the first time since this eastern Libyan city broke free from Moammar Gadhafi's rule last week, staff members of the local radio station [Radio Free Libya] took a moment to calm their nerves.

They agreed to speak in sober and reassuring tones, but Anwar Sherif, the station's main announcer, couldn't contain himself once he took the microphone to deliver the city's first free broadcast in 42 years.

"There was a fear barrier broken that day. I sounded sentimental, even hysterical," Sherif, 36, recalled Thursday. "We let loose all the words we could never say. I said, 'Down with the tyrant!' and then all the other suppressed words came spilling out."

Tobruk's Radio Free Libya was among the first three stations in the country to offer uncensored updates on the revolt against Gadhafi's regime, which still controls the capital, Tripoli, and most of the western part of this restive North African nation.

Once supervised by in-house intelligence agents who had the final say over every program, the radio station is now the mouthpiece of anti-government rebels who have few other conduits to the masses because the old state-run newspapers have stopped publishing, and the regime has shut down the Internet and most cell-phone service throughout the country.

A month ago, the most controversial topic on air was the locals' frustration over the lack of promised development projects, residents now call in to ask where they can donate food and medical supplies - their contributions to the struggle to unseat Gadhafi.

On Thursday, Radio Free Libya aired security updates, along with pleas to stand in solidarity with the besieged people of the capital, Tripoli. Another program took aim at price gouging, with the announcer declaring that any driver or merchant who overcharged people because of the crisis "has no sense of patriotism."

The imam of the city's biggest mosque issued a plea through the station for young men in the area to return all the heavy weapons they'd seized in clashes with security forces. He said Libyans were grateful to the youth for their bravery, and urged prayers for the dead.

"I hail the people who were martyred in this revolution, and may God give them mercy," the imam said over the crackly airwaves. "Paradise awaits all those who received bullets in their chests."

This sudden, free flow of information is still hard to absorb for the radio station's 32-person staff, which saved the most vital equipment only hours before the station's old headquarters was torched on Feb. 18. They began broadcasting again Sunday in a ramshackle building near a communications tower, the location of which they don't want revealed in case of government retaliation.

"Radio Free Libya" is scribbled in black marker on the front door. The studio is a dingy room furnished with only a soundboard and a desk for the microphones. Nobody's receiving a salary anymore. But for the journalists who no longer have to stick to Gadhafi's party line, this new space is a laboratory for their long-crushed dreams.

"We're going to be the fourth estate," said Khaled Mahmoud, 36, an announcer. "Before February 17, it was a one-sided game. But we will build a free media that broadcasts events in a neutral, objective way."

Before the uprising, the university-educated, politically astute staff members said they were stifled by the regime's strict edicts on suitable programming. That mostly meant praise for Gadhafi and his family interspersed with a smattering of folkloric music and cultural shows. When the seeds of the uprising began a month ago, around the time of similar revolts in Tunisia and Egypt, the government banned all live broadcasts in case a dissident announcer attacked Gadhafi on air.

"The intelligence officers would say, 'You have to go with the policy of the country, and don't ever criticize the regime,'" said programming coordinator Abdullah Idris, 42. "They were in our building, watching everything."

When protests in the downtown square turned into violent clashes with the security forces on Feb. 17, the station's employees immediately sided with the demonstrators. The opposition, backed by army defectors, overwhelmed Gadhafi's forces that day, and the old radio format ended overnight.

The station was off the air only one day before returning as Radio Free Libya. The staff members, who come from six of the area's most prominent tribes, said their goal is to create a station that promotes national unity and gives voice to the grievances of the people. And they said they wouldn't go easy on whatever government emerges from the current turmoil.

"Libya will surprise the whole world with our media," said Saleh Wafi, 42, a producer. "We are cultured and educated. All we lacked was freedom."

Read more: http://www.miamiherald.com/2011/02/24/2084014/at-radio-free-libya

Yimber Gaviria, Colombia, Feb 24, DXLD yg (25/2-2011)



A bit of nostalgia can be found in http://radiomocidade.blogspot.com/  The author, Joaquim A. A. Nogueira, radio amateur CT2 FVF, is a retired teacher who worked in our pearl of East Africa, Lourenço Marques, Moçambique, and his blog he revives the Rádio Mocidade days.

This tiny stn worked in the late 60s & early 70s, and was the aftermath of Nogueira's idea when he taught in Salazar Grammar School and wanted to initiate pupils in the wonders of radio.

Although the radio authority "CTT" supported (!) the idea, the radio amateur association, Liga dos Radioemissores de Moçambique opposed, so the alternative Nogueira found was to start off by founding a school station - hence the name, Radio Youth.

An old 20 watt HF tx was modified to operate on MF, and the station, equipped with its tx and studio, firtst took the air in February, 1967.  As the blog shows, they got a 2nd tx, an old RCA 100 watter.  In 1970, R. Mocidade was offered a 250 watt tx by the Rádio Club de Moçambique, and a new studio and professional equipment were inaugurated in 1970.

In 1974, they would be operating their new tx, the third since they first took the air: a 2 kW which due to the power was sited at the Matola (near Lourenço Marques) site.  That was short lived as the station decided to halt its services on 27 April, 1974.

If you know some history, then you'll know a bit why: Portugal's betrayal by some of her own [leftwing] military who soon paved the way for marxism and consequentely the dawn of all Portugal achieved overseas to say the least, and ultimately triggered off civil war in both Angola and Moçambique; the daunting scale of those two civil wars, particularly that in Angola, simply couldn't compare to the missions of controlling Soviet-Cuban/China/USA (to
name but the leading culprits) backed terrorism in those two territories plus Guiné-Bissau held by Portugal's armed forces since 1961.
73, Carlos Goncalves, Portugal (3/1-2011)



Offshore Radio Event Radio Days 13/11/ 2010
The Radio Day we, Martin van der Ven, Rob Olthof and I (Hans Knot) are organising every year is coming soon. So let’s go to the updated information:

For 32 years, the annual Dutch "Radio Day" has been a "must" for all (offshore) radio experts and enthusiasts. About 350 people are normally attending the event each year. This website has galleries of photos from previous events and will keep visitors up to date with news of this year's event as arrangements fall into place.
The Radio Day 2010 will take place on Saturday 13th November 2010, in the new Hotel Casa 400 in Amsterdam, Eerste Ringdijkstraat 4 (in vicinity of the old Casa 400 hotel).

What can you expect on this year's Radio Day in November?
First of all don't forget that this year, we will gather in the all new Hotel Casa 400 which is situated in the Eerste Ringdijkstraat 4 in Amsterdam which is only 200 metres away from the old Hotel building which most of you will know from the years gone by.

What about this year's guests? Well this year's Radio Day in Amsterdam on Saturday 13th November will have many treats for offshore radio enthusiasts. There will be a Radio Mi Amigo panel with Hugo Meulenhof, Ferry Eden, Will van der Steen and Bert Bennett. The discussion will be moderated by Marc Jacobs.

One of this year's highlights will be a "Radio 390 Reunion". Up to now the following people have been gladly accepting our invitation: Graham Gill, Jack McLaughlin, Brian Cullingford, Roger Scott (Arnold Layne), Mark Hammerton (Mark Sloane), John Stewart (John Aston) and Ben E. Nurdin (son of the late Sheldon Jay). Trevor Adams from Project Redsand will moderate the 390 panel.

We are planning a superb "RNI is 40" reunion as well and can now reveal that we are expecting the following guests: Victor Pelli, Robb Eden, Roger 'Twiggy' Day, Graham Gill, Arnold Layne (Roger Scott), Peter Chicago, Bob Noakes, Tony Berk, Jan Harteveld, Hans ten Hooge (Hogendoorn), Peter Ford, Peter Jager, Marc van Amstel, Pieter Damave and Leo van der Goot. Nico Steenbergen and Robbie Owen will chair both panels.

And we will welcome Seve Ungermark from Sweden who has worked for the Scandinavian offshore radio pioneer Radio Nord. He will be interviewed by Ronnie Forslund.

Last but not least Tom Edwards (Radio City and Radio Caroline) has told us that he will be proud to be our special guest this year. He will be in conversation with Alan Milewczyk.

This year's programme will be finished with a Radio Day Special: Herbert Visser in conversation with Chi Coltrane. Chi will underline the impact of offshore radio on the music industry (still to be affirmed)

Last but not least: Extra Gold NL will be transmitting live from this year's Radio Day. And Hans Hettelder will again showcase his superb radio ship models.
Hans Knot via mwcircle yg (7/11-2010)



From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

The Marine, &c., Broadcasting (Offences) Act 1967 c.41, shortened to Marine Broadcasting Offences Act, became law in the United Kingdom at 12 midnight on Monday, August 14, 1967 and was repealed by the Wireless Telegraphy Act 2006. Its purpose was to extend the powers of the British Wireless Telegraphy Act of 1949 (which it incorporated by reference), beyond the territorial land mass and territorial waters of the UK to cover airspace and
bodies of water.
At the time that the Bill was introduced in Parliament in 1966, there were radio stations and proposals for television stations outside British licensing jurisdiction with signals aimed at Britain. These stations were at sea but there were press reports of stations planned from aircraft.
The Act included the Channel Islands and extended to the Isle of Man. As a result, offshore stations called pirate radio became criminal if operated or assisted by persons subject to UK law. Station operators thought they could continue if they were staffed, supplied and funded by non-British citizens, but this proved impractical.

Origins of the Act:
In 1966, broadcasting in the UK was controlled by the British General Post Office, which had granted exclusive radio broadcasting licences to the British Broadcasting Corporation and television licences to the BBC and 16 Independent Television companies.
The power of the GPO covered letters delivered by the Post Office, newspapers, books and their printing presses, the encoding of messages on lines used to supply electricity; the electric telegraph, the electric telephone (which was originally deemed an electronic post office); the electric wireless telegraph and the electric wireless telephone which became
known as "telephony" and later wireless broadcasting. In the 1920s the GPO had been circumvented by broadcasting from transmitters in countries close to British listeners. World War II terminated these broadcasts except for Radio Luxembourg.

Broadcasting pressure groups:
In the 1950s a pressure group campaigned with the help of Winston Churchill to pass the Television Act 1954 that broke the BBC television monopoly by creating ITV. Some members wanted commercial competition to radio but were thwarted by a succession of governments.
By the 1960s several companies formed in the hope that radio licences would be issued. Radio monopolies in adjoining nations had been broken by transmitters on ships in international waters. The first attempt to broadcast offshore to Britain was by CNBC, an English-language station from the same ship as Radio Veronica broadcasting in Dutch to the Netherlands. CNBC ended transmissions but press reports followed that GBLN, The Voice of
Slough, would transmit from a ship with sponsored programming already booked and advertised by Herbert W. Armstrong. GBLN was followed by reports that GBOK was attempting to get on air from another ship, both ships to be anchored off south-east England. Many in these early ventures were known to each other.
Some of the commercial television group members had registered broadcasting companies and were working to create offshore radio. The first venture was Project Atlanta in 1963, which had ties to British political leaders, bankers, the music industry and to Gordon McLendon, who had helped Radio Nord broadcast from a ship off Sweden. When that was put off the air by Swedish law it became available to British entrepreneurs. Before Radio
Atlanta got on the air, Radio Caroline began broadcasting in March 1964.
Texas connections to British stations led Don Pierson of Eastland, Texas to promote three American-radio format stations off Britain: Wonderful Radio London or Big L, Swinging Radio England and Britain Radio. By 1966 other stations had come on the air transmitting to Scotland, northern and southern England, or were in the process of doing so. Press reports included rumours of offshore television stations and the brief success of the Dutch REM
Island operation called Radio and TV Noordzee heightened the fear of the authorities that defacto unregulated broadcasting was becoming so entrenched due to its popularity that it would not be possible to stop it.

Existing laws governing the offshore stations:
Although these stations maintained sales and management offices in Britain, the transmitters were not under British law. In many instances the ships were registered in other countries.

Claims of piracy:
Parliamentary debates listed several reasons why unlicensed broadcasting should be stopped. Opponents referred to "pirate radio stations". Allegations of piracy included misappropriation of World War II military installations; wavelengths allocated to others and the unauthorised playing of recorded music. Other charges said the vessels were a danger to shipping and that signals could interfere with aircraft and police, fire and ambulance services.

Timing of legislation:
In 1966 events took place which led to the hijacking of Radio City, on a disused offshore defence fort. It led to the killing of a radio operator. That strengthened the position of the Labour government of Harold Wilson enough to see the passage of the Marine Broadcasting Offences Act on 15 August 1967.

Results of the legislation:
The offshore stations were composed of four groups:
1.Local operators of small stations such as Radio Essex and Radio City and Radio 390 who conducted their businesses with limited budgets primarily from disused forts on offshore sandbars. The UK silenced these stations by bringing the sandbars within UK waters.
2.Regional operators such as Radio 270 and Radio Scotland who lacked the resources to relocate to other countries and staff their operations with non-British personnel.
3.The ship stations of Wonderful Radio London and Swinging Radio England and Britain Radio. While Wonderful Radio London made money, the others had lost so they closed ahead of the law to save further expense. Radio London continued broadcasting until its last transmission on the eve of the new law, when the station closed.
4.The Radio Caroline ships announced they would move to Holland, with an advertising office in New York City. The reality was felt in early 1968 when two tugs representing the supply company towed the vessels away to satisfy debts.

That was not the end of all offshore radio ...see more at
Mike Terry via mwdx yg (14/8-2010)



Mini-DXpedition in NW OK
The afternoon of July 30 we made an expedition NW from Enid to Great Salt Plains State Park & National Wildlife Refuge, and to fill up on free artesian water nearby. We also found some tasty sandplums on the roadside.

This was also my chance to check out AM and FM on the caradio in midsummer full daytime, how it compares to Enid, and especially explore the coverage are of KGNO 1370 Dodge City KS, which I can`t get daytime in Enid, and led me to suspect they were off the air or with degraded facilities, nominally 5 kW nondirexional.

KGNO became audible around Hillsdale OK not far out of Enid on State 132, and on the way back down US 81 held up till about 5 miles north of Enid, then dropped out completely. Since programming is far-right talk, we aren`t missing anything. Strange, tho, that as I drive around all parts of Enid I can`t get any sign of it on caradio, nor on home rig in daytime. Possibly KCRC 1390 on the N side of Enid is desensitizing receivers 20 kHz away without that being obvious. Close to the site, KCRC does desensitize far more than 40 kHz, but one would think this would not be a factor on the W side where KGNO might make it in.

At GSPSP, bandscan on the shore found 970 with // talk programming to KGWA 960 Enid but a couple seconds behind, at 1954 UT. Can`t be anything but KCFO Tulsa, but the last we knew it was ``Christian Talk Radio`` while KGWA is secular tho right-skewed. Easily found website http://www.kcfo.com/ shows it is now ``Talk You Can Trust``, which is debatable, with the likes of Focus on the Family.

It`s still plenty Christian, but Mon-Sat at 1-4 pm CDT is Dave Ramsey whose main thrust seems to be financial advice, sort of crossover, so he also fits on KGWA. Coverage map
shows KCFO putting a little more signal northward of Enid than into our Garfield County. And KGWA is an obstacle to 970 tho in some parts of town we can pull another gospel huxter past it on 950, Bott`s KJRG Newton KS.

Just trying to find KGWA`s schedule, all searches lead to website of its offspring KOFM, where there is NOTHING about KGWA, even by internal search.

By GSPSP&NWR, KOSU 91.7 signal is losing out, so we have to look elsewhere for NPR, i.e. KMUW 89.1 Wichita. It`s in and out, but hardly clear, as the Enid Oasis Network translator K06CA on 89.1, 250 watts, is still enough to be quite a problem on a nondirexional car antenna. This, its flagship KNYD 90.5 Tulsa and many other relays are licensed to ``Creative Educational Media Corp.,``, another gospel huxter group trying to portray itself as ``educational``, and ``creative`` (codeword for creationism?) to boot!

On 1470 at 1957 UT, ``The Rocket 1470 AM, blast from the past``, and ``mission control forecast`` by YL Dee2 Michaels, hi 91, lo 68 which indicates it is slightly further north and/or west than Enid. Has to be Liberal KS which has good coverage but does not make it on GW to Enid. Googling the slogan is surprisingly unproductive, but I do find it on a cache of the unavailable City of Liberal website, http://www.cityofliberal.com/b_marketing.htm ---

KSMM-AM [sic] 1470 The Rocket
150 Village Plaza
Liberal, KS 67901
Phone: (620) 624-8156
Email: efranz@rockingmradio.com

So it seems Enid is not the only city with a cohete for a radio station. 1470 is no longer Spanish sports as in NRC 2009 Log, tho their FM is Spanish.

On 1540 at 1959 UT, Mozart`s ``Eine Kleine Nachtmusik`` catches my ear but it has English lyrix I can`t make out. Turns out to be a PSA for http://www.americansforthearts.org an undoubtedly worthy cause.

On the website I don`t find that PSA, just a 3-year old video:
Then mentions central Kansas, and ``Talk Radio 1540, KNGL, McPherson``. This one also barely makes it to Enid.

On 600 at 2000 UT, a trace of talk, but some remote T-storm is too much for it. Probably groundwave remnant of KCOL in CO, the station which set off the skywave fiesta on April 20, or possibly WMT in IA. KLTT 670 from CO is of course quite a bit stronger here than in Enid close to the end of its groundwave.

On 1360 at 2112 UT, Catholic talk with a slight echo. In Enid we get one, KAHS El Dorado KS with EWTN, but at GSPSP&NWR, another affiliate, KDJW in Amarillo TX is also incoming. NRC AM Log 2009 says the latter is ``St. Valentine Radio``, 500 watts but with a CP for 6000, while KAHS is ``Holy Spirit Radio``.

1580 at 2304 UT, KOKB Blackwell OK is once again modulationless, setting up we hope for another chance to ID the Saturday morning Spanish underneath.
Glenn Hauser, OK, dxld yg & mwdx yg (31/7-2010)



Big Daytime MWDX Opening.
The afternoon of April 20 I witnessed an extremely unusual daytime MW DX opening, which brought in numerous stations from Colorado and Wyoming, mainly from Denver and the Front Range, Pueblo to Fort Collins and Greeley but also as far as Grand Junxion and Casper, Wyoming, over a megameter away. And it turned out, also from Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota and Minnesota!

After lunch at a restaurant in west Enid, I got in the car and checked the MW band at 1954 UT. Before I went in earlier in the hour, I had noticed a lot of line noise on the top end of the band, but not at the low end, so I started tuning up, and quickly found a big signal on 600 kHz, which is normally vacant here in the daytime.

I soon moved to another parking lot I knew to be low-noise, and spent most of the next two hours DXing this phenomenon on the caradio, with of course non-direxional whip on the hood. I wished I could have tipped off the lists about this opening, but I don`t have any mobile internet access. I wonder if anyone else got in on it?

This opening brought in many Denver and vicinity stations with very strong signals, better than ever accomplished at `low noon` around winter solstice when there is some residual skywave.

This must have been some form of skywave, unless there is a means for groundwave to be greatly and suddenly enhanced. But surely not groundwave under any circumstances, all the way from Grand Junxion on the far side of the Rockies, or from Casper in the middle of Wyoming.

670 Denver is however a regular daytime groundwave catch here across the plains, and I recently also reported 650 Cheyenne one morning. Surface weather surely could not have such an extreme effect, but I note that a cold front was approaching us from Colorado.

What could have caused this? A few hours earlier, Space Shuttle STS 131 crossed the area as it was approaching Cape Cañaveral for landing. NASA says the track entered North America around Vancouver BC, then across the ``Midwest``, Arkansas, Mississippi. Could it have caused some long-lingering ionization as it went thru the E-layer? Sporadic space-shuttle skip? SSSS, a new propagation mode? No chance of that after the upcoming finale of STS.

I see from DX Sherlock and TV-FM Skip Log that there were also sporadic E openings into VHF around mid-day between FL and Mexico and later between FL and Dominican Republic, somewhat unusual this time of year.

This was a selective opening. Nothing unusual from closer western Kansas, and I still suspect KGNO 1370 Dodge City is off the air. No sign of anything from New Mexico; Utah might have made it on 1160 if it were not for IBOC from KFAQ 1170 Tulsa. Many additional frequencies thruout the band had increased levels of interference to the normally audible weak groundwave signals.

Here are all the logs rearranged into frequency order. All times UT; if you must, subtract 7 hours for MST, 6 for MDT/CST, 5 for CDT/EST, 4 for EDT, a.k.a. ``ELT``; in any event, I starting logging only 82 minutes after local mean noon at 1832 UT, more than 5 hours before sunset, and no telling how much earlier before that the opening started.

560, since I was getting so many other Denver-area stations, sought KLZ at 2050, but something just barely audible, and just as easily could be marginal KWTO MO. Reason: KLZ is tightly direxional N-S.

590, at 1955, normally dominant groundwave KXSP Omaha had some CCI, just after I heard 600 from CO, so assumed KCSJ Pueblo; by 2051, just Omaha sports dominant, so never got a definite ID on this one. I must say that I have been noting something under Omaha several daytimes lately, figured KLBJ Austin most likely.

600, at 1954 ad for Champion Windows on west I-25 frontage road, political ad for Elite Hassan (sounds like), candidate for Colorado State Treasurer, used car dealer in Fort Collins/Greeley. It`s KCOL Wellington, loud and clear, never heard here in the daytime before. My first log in this opening, on a frequency normally vacant daytime, and many more to come. I`ll quote the City of License, especially appropriate for KCOL! Still in at 2051.

630, at 1955, I can tell there is some station here, underneath all the double whammy from IBOC 620 KMKI TX and 640 WWLS OK. Has to be KHOW Denver, and would surely have been clear without the IBOC. Normally nothing has a chance on 630 here in the daytime vs IBOC x 2.

650, at 1955, I can also tell there is a station here under the WWLS 640 IBOC, no doubt KGAB Cheyenne WY.

670, at 1956 and thruout, KLTT Commerce City CO, the one Colorado station which is a daytime groundwave regular. Stronger than usual, and presumably getting a skywave boost.

710, looking for KNUS Denver, but no sign of it versus the usual KGNC/KCMO mix. Reason: KNUS is tightly direxional NE/SW and we are in a deep null here.

760, at 1956, Kansas City has CCI (co-channel interference). Returned to it at 2015, in Thom Hartmann Program, ``AM 760, Colorado`s Progressive Talk, am760.net``. L&C signal of KKZN Thornton; now way over Kansas City, normally dominant daytimes. Wish it did not take an extraordinary DX opening to audiblize Thom`s weekday show anywhere on my Okie dial. But no time to stop and listen now!

810, normally occupied only by WHB Kansas City, but avoided here because of splash from OKC 800: at 2038, CCI between sports and some other talk station. KLVZ Brighton CO, in Denver area? except it`s supposed to be Spanish religion and direxional to the SW, null toward OK. At 2052, ``Sports Radio 8-10`` slightly under other talker, and the former then mentioned Overland Park, so that`s WHB. The CCI was discussing Haiti in English. At 2104, ABC news cutaway, local ad for something in Northern Hills. Then Derry Brownfield Show (which is also on WWCR), 1-800-973-3739, and disclaimer by ``KBHB, Five-State Radio``, i.e. Sturgis SD in the SW corner full of bikers. Make that Six! 627 miles.

830, at 1957, Family News in Focus, Today`s Lighthouse Report. Religious format. At first not sure of identity and I don`t have references with me; all researched after the fact. At 2016, plug Route66life.com and National Day of Prayer, May 6 (o yeah?). Mentions Intentional Living, i.e. same as 1200 KFNW, and Dr. Randy show, over CCI which must be WCCO. At 2054, the two stations are almost equal level, financial/religious talk atop WCCO ID in passing. 2147, ad for a candy shop in downtown Casper! So it`s KUYO WY, which is also on the affiliate list for Intentional Living at this hour. Also plug again for route66life.com now inbooming without WCCO. 632 miles to Casper.

830, at 2054, WCCO ID in passing under KUYO Wyoming. Just hearing WCCO itself in the daytime would be remarkable enough this time of year. At 2100 the CBS News timebong was at least 20 seconds late!

850, at 1957, Rush loud & clear over Spanish from TX. No need to wait for an ID from KOA! And its IBOC severely QRMs KKOW-860 KS, normally a big clear daytime groundwave signal here. KOA still inbooming at 2107.

910, at 1958, trying to get something recognizable out of KPOF Denver, but not successful now or later vs the OK and TX stations. Even tho KPOF is non-direxional, an heritage station. It originally meant Pillar Of Fire, some Biblical myth, but now it means Point Of Faith, trying to be more oecumenical?

990, at 1959, weak CCI, a frequency to be checked later. At 2019 a mix with SAH, but can make out some South Asian music. Is that now the format of KRKS Denver instead of religion in English? More South Asian music, but at 2058 ID in Amerenglish for Farmersville-DFW, i.e. KFCD, one of the frequencies hijacked from Wichita Falls to The Metroplex; but KFCD is supposed to be Spanish religion, and I`m not sure which one the ID goes with. I don`t see anything Ethnic, other than Spanish on this frequency anywhere in the US per the NRC AM Log 2009-2010, so a mystery. Any help? I have already spent more time compiling this report than axually logging the DX, and don`t have the time to look for all the updates to the Log.

1030, at 1959-2000, despite ACI splash from KOKP-1020 OK, ID as ``KTWO, Casper, the only way to stay informed, with Fox News,`` etc.
(I beg to differ. That is the only way to stay MISinformed.) Big signal from another station normally impossible daytime. Obliterates whatever bit makes it on groundwave from Garden City KS. 2022, Hannity L&C via KTWO. Still in at 2154 as I have to stop monitoring, 3 hours and 16 minutes before local sunset in Enid. 632 miles.

1040, at 2023, talk show seems about nutrition. Probably KCBR Monument CO, axually religious. 2040, religious talk show. Colorado Springs market.

1060, at 2001, loud & clear news, must be KRCN Longmont CO again. I find that the noise level at the first parking lot is getting too severe above 1000 kHz so I quickly drive to the quiet one in the next couple minutes.

1090, at 2003, Spanish music. 2024 ad for McDonald`s in Spanish, i.e. KMXA Aurora CO. Has IBOC noise on 1090, and there is also IBOC noise on 1080 vs KRLD, as these two stations degrade each other. 2024 ad for somethings sounding like Puma and Eclipse, mentioned Denver, and ``María 10-90 AM, Siempre Romántica``. Which Mary is it named for? Surely not the BVM with a format like that.

1100, at 2002, Fox News loud & clear, ad for AlliedBank.com mentioning ``the Western Slope`` which is the local geographical referent for Grand Junxion CO and vicinity. At 2006, ID as ``Talk Radio AM 1100, The Splash`` -- not sure of last word. It`s 50 kW KNZZ. Into Sean Hannity crap. Most of the signals are quite steady. This one starts to fade down gradually. But still L&C at 2111. 610 miles.

1170, while local KFAQ Tulsa trashes 1160 and 1180 with IBOC, squashing any chance of KSL during this opening, at 2112 while KFAQ is in local relatively calm talk, I can make out weak CCI on 1170 itself, KJJD Windsor CO most likely.

1190 at 2114, gab about electronic music between DJ and guest, really laid back; in fact, we were to ``sit back and space out`` as the music started. Rather eclectic show, at 2122 ``Good Vibrations`` by Beach Boys, outro by same DJ, 2125 KVCU ID in passing. CCI on 1190 from the KS and TX stations at least, but KVCU more or less dominant for a while. This is the failing commercial AM station which was acquired for the students at UC Boulder.

1200, at 2008 talk show, apparently financial, 888-888-1717. That Googles to Intentional Living out of Tucson and website http://www.theintentionallife.com/stationtime.asp shows the only 1200 station is KFNW West Fargo ND, time chex too at 3:06 pm CDT. 726 miles. Best distance in the opening.

1210, at 2026, CCI with talk show vs. KGYN Guymon OK`s C&W, which is normally the one heard on daytime groundwave. Most likely KHAT Laramie WY, ESPN affiliate. Yes, net fits, at 2043 ID as ESPN Radio, now over KGYN, and SAH of slightly over 2 Hz.

1300, at 2027, KAKC Tulsa has CCI, one of which with very distorted modulation. Might be selective skywave/groundwave self-QRM from one station. At 2028, ESPN is atop, i.e. KAKC. Suspect the other is KCSF Colorado Springs, supposed to be C&W, but did not catch such music in further tunebies.

1310, at 2009, Dr Laura. Frequency is normally vacant or nearly so daytime, the TX and KS stations not making it groundwavely. So KFKA Greeley CO. At 2030 break in Laura for Fox News Radio, then ``News-talk 13-10, KFKA`` ID.

1320, at 2009, KCLI OK which is // KNSS 1330 KS, has CCI and SAH. At 2032, KCLI with News9 (KWTV OKC) plug, and lo het over CCI. At 2046 this frequency has Sean Hannity x 2, a reverb apart. Only other station fitting in the DX area is KOLT Scottsbluff NE, per listings on the Hannity website.

1350, at 2032, ad for Pueblo, and slogan ``Homer 13-50``, i.e. KDZA CO, and slogan chex with NRC AM Log. Still in at 2107. Assume refers to baseball, not Simpson.

1530, at 2012, singing ID as I tune in for ``15-30, KCMN``, soul music. I.e. Colorado Springs, NRC-AM Log listed with nostalgia. Also IBOC noise on 1540, and that fits for KCMN in this listing: http://topazdesigns.com/iboc/station-list.html

1600, at 2013, SAH of almost 1 Hz, one side presumably semilocal KUSH Cushing OK and by now naturally I suspect the other is CO, KEPN Lakewood. No audible het from KMDO Fort Scott KS, nor any sign now of Vietnamese from KRVA The Metroplex TX.

1690, at 2014, typical Disney music loud & clear, // 1560 KOCY OKC, i.e. KDDZ Arvada CO. A bit weaker at 2049. Nothing else on X-band, but might have had 1630 WY and 1650 CO were it not for splash from my local KFXY-1640 gospel music. Note that this opening affected the entire MW band. KDDZ still in at 2107.

That`s it. My method of reporting may not fit the format of logs in DXN and DXM, but I hope some editors feel this info is worthy of publication, perhaps as a special feature, and further discussion.
Glenn Hauser, Enid OK, dxld yg (21/4-2010)



In today's increasingly connected world, it's hard to imagine a time when worldwide communication required serious effort. Some visionaries could imagine a future where near-instantaneous communication was possible, but for most of the world it was only a pipe dream.
One of those visionaries was Guglielmo Marconi.
Marconi was born to a life of privilege: his father was a wealthy Italian land owner and his mother was an heiress to the Jameson Whiskey fortune.
As a child, Marconi was interested in physics and math, and had an early start in communications science; at 21 at his father's estate in Italy, he managed to send wireless telegraphy signals over two kilometres.
His work was inspired by Heinrich Hertz, who discovered wireless waves, James Clerk Maxwell, who first described electromagnetic waves, Oliver Lodge, a professor at Oxford University, and Augustus Righi, a physics professor at Bologna University and close family friend.
In 1896, Marconi and his mother moved from Italy to London where Marconi set up shop. Within a few months, he submitted his first patent on wireless transmission using Hertzian waves.
Almost instantly, Marconi became a celebrity and had the support of the public, the British and Italian Navies, the British General Post Office, and Queen Victoria. The public was enchanted by the idea of coded messages travelling through the air (what we call radio waves today) rather than through wires like traditional telegrams.
Read the full story at: http://thevarsity.ca/articles/29188
Southgate http://www.southgatearc.org/news/march2010/discovery_of_wt.htm
Mike Terry via dxld yg (24/3-2010)



Daytime DX in Oklahoma

All times are UT = CST +6. This apparently makes my logs ineligible to appear in weekly bulletins, so here you are:

Another quick MW bandscan on the caradio at a hotspot in western Enid the afternoon of Dec 14, times UT!

1200, at 2137, skywave in, something in Spanish atop WOAI, various ads for juguetes, etc., causing slow SAH with WOAI; later mentioned ``Chicago informa … 1,200 AM``. So it`s WRTO, 10 kW, ``La Tremenda`` per NRC AM Log 2009-2010. Strangely enough, per NRC pattern book, its daytime design has a null to the SE, but plenty of signal to the SW.
WOAI soon faded up overtaking it, but 1200 is hardly a ``clear channel`` any more!

540, at 2144, KWMT Ft Dodge IA, groundwave, with two or three IDs in passing during info about local events. Usually it`s a mix with KDFT, but no sign of Spanish this time; the latter off the air? If it stays off I may finally have a chance of inpulling KNMX by daytime groundwave, which ought to be possible here [no, next day Dec 15 around 1930, KDFT is back on and dominating].

570, at 2147, usual mix of KLIF with groundwave from WNAX SD, way under but audible with SAH of about 3.5 Hz. Someone was wondering whether WNAX was running usual spex; seems so to me.
Glenn Hauser, Enid OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST (19/12-2009)

Afternoon DXing from caradio, nondirexional whip:

1660, no sign of KXTR Kansas City, but a weak 3-way SAH could be detected at 2015 Dec 18, presumably traces of the TX, ND and MI stations. KXTR website has referred to being off the air periodically for antenna work. It currently shows this, now outdated, so they are still not finished:


1250 Spanish and 1090 EWTN from the KC area were in well, so skywave was obviously in play, and KXTR should have been easily audible if on. I hope the `work` does not include diminishing the skywave component.

Talk on 1670 also in, no doubt WTDY Madison WI (I had also heard it Dec 17 around 1800, close to low noon at 1832 UT = 1200 LMT); and no sign of CJEU Gatineau QC.

1210, KGYN Guymon OK still ailing with very weak groundwave signal, but barely audible ``US Country`` slogan at 2020 Dec 18, SAH between two other very weak signals.

1560, at 2015 UT, our nearest groundwave station on that frequency, KOCY, 1 kW Del City (why license to this SE suburb of OKC? It was originally much further off to the SW in Chickasha as KWCO), Radio Disney, was already getting heavy QRM from a skywave pileup, mainly something with a talk show. And one of them far enough off-frequency to cause a rumbling audible het (such as 30-40 Hz, maybe).

Next check at 2035 it was even worse; besides the rumbling AH, there were also a SAH of 6 Hz, and another faster SAH. So that`s at least three or four stations. At 2100, Houston-orientated sportstalk on top, obviously 50 kW KGOW ``Bellaire`` TX, but no legal ID to be heard. 2101 played PSA for http://texasflu.com and then at 2102 ID only as ``1560 The Game, happily filling the holes in your life``, which I must say is a distinctive slogan altho it leaves me cold; what holes? Is that any way to talk to a proud listener? Probably played then, since a golf ad was to follow, ha2.
Rather tight major daytime lobe is at 14 degrees, and one of the nulls at 330 degrees; we are roughly halfway between them, meaning considerably off the boresight.
This is the same station that got out widely a few months ago during a hurricane/flood emergency when running day facilities at night, and relaying news from a local TV station, KPRC `2`, as I recall. Low sun now means it gets plenty of daytime skywave propagation.

1370, rechecked again in the afternoons of Dec 17, and 18, still no groundwave signal from KGNO Dodge City KS, which used to be a daytime fringe regular here. It`s still on the books as non-direxional, day power 5 kW, an heritage station, but does it exist any more? It`s now part of a 20-station group all over Kansas, so just another cog. I should phone and inquire, 620-225-8080.

Coverage map at http://www.rockingmradio.com/kgno.htm shows the 0.5 mV/m contour extending into OK no further than Alva in Woods county, but it should be audible here over the Ogalalla aquifer with much less signal than that. Er, make that microvolts per meter; what difference does a little factor of three orders of magnitude make?
Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST (19/12-2009)



New traditional MW DX radio
Icom is putting a new radio on the market to replace the 756 PRO series. It is the Icom IC-7600 which is expected to sell in the US$3000 range.
I have owned the IC-756PRO III for a number of years now which has given me
superb MW DX (after mods), but this new kid on the block is significantly
better and jam packed with useful features.

It is not attenuated on the MW band and the pre-amps can be engaged, unlike
the old 756.
It has two 32 bit processors instead of one.
It has USB ports for computer drive and firmware upgrades
It has 3, 6 and 15 kHz roofing filters (the 756 had only 15 kHz)
It has the well proven Icom DSP software in it's latest incarnation.
It has a significantly larger LCD screen that is just fabulous.
It has many of the features of the IC-7700 which is double the price.
It is superb for chasing NDB beacons on LW and the filter can go down to 50
Hz without ringing.

So if you are not into SDR radio's and like the traditional radio with
plenty of knobs and whistles, this is the one for you. Take a look at the
user manual just released. See:

Have fun and good DX,
John Plimmer, Montagu, Western Cape Province, South Africa
South 33 d 47 m 32 s, East 20 d 07 m 32 s.
Icom IC-7700, Icom IC-756 PRO III with MW mods ERGO software, Drake SW8. Sangean 803A, Sony 7600D, GE SRIII, Redsun RP2100.
Antenna's RF Systems DX 1 Pro Mk II, Datong AD-270, Kiwa MW Loop.
John Plimmer via MWDX yg (3/2-2009)



Marconi Wireless Station in south west Cornwall is leading celebrations later to honour a man who helped save 1,600 lives 100 years ago.
On 23 January 1909, Jack Binns, from Peterborough, was a wireless operator on board the liner
The Republic.
He stayed at his post for 36 hours after the ship collided with another boat, repeatedly sending out the first wireless distress signal in morse code.
The passengers and crew of both vessels were eventually rescued.
David Barlow, from the
Lizard Wireless Station, said Mr Binns' cabin had been exposed to the elements by the collision: "He sent over 200 messages in that time, freezing cold.
"The captain had to send blankets down and hot soup to keep him going, but he was a real hero."
After the rescue Mr Binns was offered a position as wireless operator on the White Star Line's newest ship, the Titanic. He turned it down, becoming a newspaper reporter in New York instead.
The Lizard Wireless Station is the world's oldest surviving purpose-built radio station.
It received the first long-distance radio signal sent from the Isle of Wight to Cornwall on 23 January 1901.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/cornwall/7846590.stm via
Mike Terry via dxld yg (23/1-2009)



MW bandscan from a quiet rural location several km N of Enid OK, a dead-end E of US 81 into the Quail Meadows addition, Nov 29, shortly after local mean noon which is 1832 UT, on Nissan caradio, nondirexional antenna, uncovered a few interesting things.

This is about a week before our latest sunrise and another month before our earliest sunset. How much skywave will make it, and what are the limits of groundwave in this high-ground-conductivity area? Distances are approximate.

660, weak signal under KSKY Dallas, 1910 with talk mentioning Omaha; makes SAH of slightly under 2 Hz, counted at 116/minute. This frequency has been difficult because of WWLS-640 IBOC always QRMing KSKY, yes, on second-adjacent. Omaha NE is now KCRO 1 kW, vs 20 kW from somewhat closer KSKY.

670, at 1853, mix of two stations, no doubt KLTT Denver, 700 km, and WSCR Chicago 1100 km. KLTT is a regular weak signal here yearound in daytime. The other one was going thru some slow selective fading. At 1902 obviously KLTT with religion, WSCR with sports talk.

720, WGN at 1852, Saturday Noon Show with the immediately recognizable Orion Samuelson. Quite steady signal, so is it ground or skywave at 1100 km? At 1901, music in Spanish was overtaking WGN, 1.5 Hz SAH, no doubt KSAH Universal City (San Antonio) TX, 800 km, same station which messes up our WGN reception at night. 1918, WGN dominating again, now in Your Money call-in show.

Nothing much happening on the X-band, e.g. 1690 Chicago? Just a trace of something; so do we have a low-band-only noontime skywave opening, or is this all groundwave? Per the NRC Pattern Book 2006, KSAH has different antenna patterns day and night but both have a null toward Chicago. Unfortunately, we are somewhat off that direct line and KSAH may also be out of whack.

840, at 1909, local weather by YL, Monday`s high 40; more info at http://www.kticam.com and ``840 Country KTIC`` ID. Website gives slogan instead as Rural Radio. This is West Point NE near Omaha, the closest 840 to here, 600 km, about half the distance to WHAS. Probably groundwave; see 660. KFAB-1110 is also audible any day.

850, at 1908 KOA ID in passing over music from TX station. Less than KLTT-670, KOA Denver CO barely makes it here in daytime by groundwave.

1100, hoping for WZFG Fargo if they are back to 50 kW fullpower, but instead had usual fringe daytime dominator, KKLL Joplin MO, 350 km; after instrumental excerpt from America The Beautiful, outro for program named Radio Liberty? At 1859 string of maybe a dozen legal IDs for stations in AR, MO and IL at least, with KKLL somewhere in the middle of the list. However, at 1915 there was a fast SAH, maybe sports talk under country/gospel music? Most likely KDRY Alamo Heights (San Antonio) TX, judging from 1200 definite, 720. Is the 50 kW 1100 in Louisiana on the air yet? I still have hopes for pulling WZFG by daytime skywave if not groundwave, by latching onto a N/S defacto fence Beverage around here, but that may also bring up KDRY instead.

1200, at 1858 fast SAH between two very weak signals, but at 1907 WOAI ID in passing, just barely audible, and fading. Fortunately, not strong enough to carry any significant IBOC with it, and I could still hear KGYN 1210, and TX/KS on 1190.

1540, at 1856 car talk show over a weaker signal. 1904 in ABC News, ID ``Talk Radio 1540, KNGL, McPherson`` (Kansas), local weather. I was looking for KXEL Waterloo IA, heard a few days earlier but a sesquihour later, dominating 1540 by skywave, and this faked me out with the same slogan.

Other notes: IBOC from OK stations ruined the following: 630, 650, 990, 1010, 1160, 1180, 1290, 1310. A pair of deer loped by at 1914.

This was a MW mini-DXpedition, but on the way back I tuned around FM, and confirmed that 99.7 is still vacant, awaiting the Mustang OK station to come on, having been hijacked from Enid/Alva as KZLS. BTW, KZLS has modified CP to be 39 kW/154 m rather than 25 kW/100 m, but still a lot less than the original station KXLS near Helena halfway between Enid and Alva, later renamed KNID, which was 100 kW ERP at 256 meters AAT.

99.7 was so vacant that I heard a couple of nice meteor bursts at 1924 and 1927 plus several weaker ones in a 5-minute period. Welcome, Geminids?
Glenn Hauser, Enid OK, DXLD yg (29/11-2008)



On the road in OK and NM, AM notes.
Notes from my trip to Santa Fe NM and back to Enid for a week in August, Nissan Sentra 2004 caradio, a lot better than my previous ones. FCC AM and FM queries have been checked in most cases; also referenced NRC AM Log 2007, now one year old, and possibly some calls or other info outdated now. All dates and times strictly UT! Rearranged by frequency order, altho continuity would be better in chrono order.
640, 2308 Aug 19, WWLS Moore OK was still audible into NE NM around Clayton, with call-in, probably sports talk, what else? Their IBOC was a nuisance further east but maybe not this far.
760, 2134 Aug 19, ID as ``Colorado`s Progressive Radio``, Randi Rhodes show but with constant picket-fence breaks in modulation! Is no one paying attention? That`s 50 kW KKZN Thornton, in NRC AM Log 2007 as ``Boulder`s Progressive Radio``; maybe they use both. Nice to be getting toward the end of OK where we can axually hear something other than the far right on commercial AM radio! Signal does not compare to 50 kW KOA (W of Guymon OK on US 412)
790, 2123 Aug 26, Roger Miller singing ``K.C. Star``, mixing with talk station at 152/minute SAH = 2.53 Hz. Music from K-XXX, Colby KS, talk from KFYO Lubbock TX (West of Boise City OK on US 412)
860, 2127 Aug 26, no doubt KPAN Hereford TX was the station bothered by IBOC from KOA-850 Denver, in the daytime (W of Boise City OK on US 412)
1040, 2130 Aug 26, medical talk or infomercial, 1-800-395-1904, Dr Pinkus` Ultimate Health Care, then closing show ``Discoveries in Health`` with Chris McKay, from the KCBR Info Center, 2132 ``Healthline Live``. This is Monument CO (Colorado Springs), another strangely powered 15 kW station. But to me, KCBR will always be ``the Voice of America station in Delano, California, signing off``
1210, KGYN Guymon OK, we drive right past E of town on US 412, with its three towers in a straight line aimed at Philadelphia, but might as well be one for often running ND at night. At 2057 Aug 19 near the site, I was getting IBOC-like noise on 1140, and a match on 1280, but the latter obscured by Liberal KS on 1270. So KGYN puts out spurs plus and minus 70 kHz. For a few miles along US 412, KGYN also desensitizes the entire MW band on caradio with its 10 kW. It will be a relief if they ever manage to move this to OKC, but a loss of local radio for the Panhandle. A pickup was parked next to the shack with call letters on it. On the way back we passed it again and took a photo of the three towers and the shack.
1340, 2300+ Aug 19, at Clayton NM, we started looking for KSSR Santa Rosa NM, whose activity has been in question. It is not currently on NRC`s silent stations list, and FCC shows it still licensed. We were hearing at least two 1340 stations, one of which was KVOT Taos NM, another progressive station, now with Rachel Maddow show on Air America, the other ``Sports Radio 1340`` making a rumbling het, and fading up at 2305 as skywave may have been starting to kick in, west Texas forecast, 1-866-290-6868 ad about credit. KKAM Lubbock is the one that fits.
Further into NM on US 412 kept looking for signs of KSSR, but KVOT improved as we got closer to it; at 2332 PSA for Albuquerque Museum i.a., mentioning Taos, more Maddow. (BTW, Rachel is getting her own show on MSNBC following Countdown at 0100 UT starting September 9. Can`t say we are surprised, as her star has been rising as a frequent contributor and sub-host on Countdown, but what becomes of Dan Abrams, Verdict? It`s already gone for elexion special Aug 30. And will she keep doing her Air America show despite the pay differential?)
It turned out we did not make it to my old hometown of Santa Rosa on this trip, but the closest point was on I-25 near Las Vegas, US 84 exit at 1950 Aug 25, and there was still no KSSR to be heard, so I am confident it was off. Nor could I hear Santa Rosa on 95.9, but did not expect to from there as it has always been QRP along I-40, audible only within a few miles of the town. At 1934 Aug 25, 1340 bore ``Northern New Mexico`s progressive talk, KVOT, the Voice of Taos``. This frequency was reactivated in Taos a few years ago after several years of silence since KKIT closed (named for Kit Carson). See DXLD 5-177 for our previous report about Santa Rosa and much more, under USA.
1520, KOKC, OKC, 2315 Aug 19, sports talk, uncertain if remnants of groundwave, or skywave had started. WWLS 640 also heard a few minutes earlier (W of Clayton NM on US 412)
1530, 2317 Aug 19, ``Legends 15-30, KCMN`` Colorado Springs. Live DJ with ``Forgotten 45s`` oldies such as Aznavour on ``your drive home`` (? I am nowhere near home and getting further away by the minute), long pauses between cuts. NRC AM Log 2007 shows this one with odd power of 15 kW. Another good station for oldies, tho probably syndicated, is 93.9 Ratón, KRTN (west of Clayton NM on US 412)
1550, 1951 Aug 19, norteña music featuring accordion, atop another station. 1957 announcement talking over music sounded like ``Está escuchando --- sucia`` or that`s what it sounded like, sucia meaning feminine dirty! No ID at TOH, no announcements at all until 2014 as I suspect the DJ had stepped out for a smoke break, then ``La Potencia, 15-50, KDCC``, i.e. Dodge City KS, and the other one with a SAH of about 6 Hz would be Canyon TX` listed KZRK. Both are only 1 kW.
1570, back in Enid around 2000 Aug 28, found new talking house at 1330 West Elm, low het but not sure if off-frequency or on their loop. Woman extolling house virtues, and like others we have heard here, also extolling the talking-house concept. Range 2 or 4 blox only, and by downtown Enid fortunately inaudible, so we can hear weakly standards from KZLI Catoosa. But the next-door neighbors are doubtless deprived of XERF at night until it`s sold.
1590, 1950 Aug 19, a slow SAH of about 0.5 Hz between KWEY Weatherford OK, and KVGB Great Bend KS, the latter atop with ID as ``AM 15-90, KVGB, The Talk of the Town`` (W of Woodward OK on US 412)
1610, 2300 Aug 19 at Clayton NM, no sign of any TIS on this, 530 or any other MW frequency. I believe there had been some speculation that one was active here.
1660, 0038 UT Wed Aug 27, baseball game, and Royals mentioned, heard from near Woodward OK. Dominant signal and I figured it had to be KXTR Kansas City departing from its classical format, but not so sure after further research. Royals website says 610 is the flagship, except on Sundays 980, but I believe all these are commonly owned, so 1660 sometimes carries BB instead? KXTR website has no info about its own programming after the morning hours, but nothing about baseball. If not KXTR, must be KRZI Waco or maybe KQWB Fargo, both sports format.
In western Cimarrón County, OK, and just over the border in Union County NM on US 412, was hearing rapid clix on certain MW frequencies, obscuring weak broadcast stations, such as 1390, 1380, 1370, 1360, 1350, 1330 and various spots as low as 1070. These were no doubt harmonix of the Boise City OK LORAN-C station. Fortunately there were some open spots such as 1500 and especially 1340 where I wanted to hear KSSR Santa Rosa NM if it was on, q.v. above.
All about LORAN-C at Boise City, except WTFK??? at
Including a satellite photo of it. The proudly displayed coordinates are 36-30-20.783 N, 103-53-59.487 W which puts it just NW of the very small town of Felt OK, rather than Boise City. The clix were no longer heard by the time we got to Clayton NM.
A strange pole with antennas on it, not too high, and not of the usual cellphone appearance, on the N side of US 412, just W of mile 31 in NM between Clayton and Springer. Something to check closer next time.
Glenn Hauser, DXLD yg (30/8-2008)



OKLAHOMA groundwave notes
The Atwoods parking lot on the west side of Enid is a hot spot for MW groundwave, low noise too, so I did a quick bandscan May 28 on the caradio. A few significant observations.
1340, KEBC, OKC normally alone on channel in daytime here in Enid, but could hear something underneath sportstalk at 2022 UT. Most likely is KJMU Sand Springs, near Tulsa. Maybe I could have pulled it thru a null if I had a directional antenna. KJMU was off the air from last Oct to Feb, per reports from Bruce Winkleman via DXLDs 7-136 and 8-020. I wonder if they did any upgrading in the meantime. They are of course limited to 1000 watts non-direxional, but the ground system, etc., could have been improved.
Indeed KJMU is the only possibility, assuming there is no skywave. Altho a heavily-populated `graveyard` channel nationwide, 1340 has a big unoccupied hole around here, as is obvious from the NRC AM Pattern Book --- in KS, only two stations along the extreme eastern border with MO. None in the TX panhandle, unless you include Lubbock. None in SE Colorado.
I should have tried harder in the daytime at quiet rural locations in western OK or KS, and/or with defacto fence beverages, to better my NRC distance record for KSSR Santa Rosa NM, which I think has been silent for a few years now, perhaps never to return.
Per FCC AM Query for facility number 29504, there was an involuntary transfer of ownership after the original owner J. MICHAEL ESQUIBEL, was DECEASED, to JOSEPH M. ESQUIBEL, PERSONAL REPRESENTATIVE, presumably his son or heir, which went thru on Feb 13, 2006. KSSR is still LICENSED: as of 01/01/2008 and License Expires 10/01/2013. And as far as FCC are concerned, on the air, even if it isn`t.
If anyone is travelling along Route 66 (or rather I-40), or US 54/84 in the Santa Rosa area before I get out there again, please note whether 1340 is on the air (Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST).
1170, KFAQ, Tulsa at 2026 UT was accompanied by IBOC buzz on each side. It is not listed as an HD station by iBiquity, at

Has anyone else noticed IBOC from KFAQ at night, or day?
1000, KTOK, OKC, an IBOC station, but seems to be more and more sporadic. Not on at this time, 2027 UT, allowing Spanish gospel from Texas on 990 to be audible, KFCD Farmersville in The Metroplex, and also C&W music on 1010, KIND Independence KS. When KTOK IBOC is on, these are totally blown away by the buzz.
930, WKY, OKC, still IBOC-free, despite reports it would be next.
640, WWLS, OKC/Moore/Norman, strong IBOC on as usual totally blocking 630 and 650, and as always, also bothering KSKY 660.
620, KMKI, Plano TX, Disney for The Metroplex, has IBOC on, as can be heard bothering 610 Kansas City, tho not distinguishable from much stronger WWLS IBOC on 630.
Glenn Hauser, Enid, MWDX yg (29/5-2008)



Got a recent report of Radio Guamá, the Pinar del Rio provincial network heard in Texas on
990 kiloHertz; their main station located near the city that has the same name of the province, Pinar del Rio. Radio Guamá is also on the air on FM, so I expect to see reports of their FM broadcasts when the spring-summer sporadic E season starts.

Also about Cuban AM broadcast stations between 900 and 1000 kHz, right in the middle of the classic AM analog radio´s dials. On 900 kiloHertz Radio Progreso´s 50 kiloWatts located in Holguín province can be usually heard in the Caribbean, Central America ,the USA and Canada by nulling the Mexican station on the same channel XEW, that according to some sources runs a very high power transmitter on that frequency.

Many years ago, the Chief Engineer of Radio Progreso Cuban National Network, Carlos Estrada, visited Mexico City to attend an International Radio Broadcasting Conference, and he came back very impressed by the XEW 250 kiloWatt transmitter that used a Doherty type linear amplifier. Doherty and Terman-Woodyard linear amplifiers are now part of broadcast history, because practically all if not all of today´s new transmitters are built using solid state devices that operate with rather low voltages. The solid state power output stages are modular, so in case one of them fails the transmitter still stays on the air at reduced power output, something broadcasters appreciate very much.

Now, more about Cuban AM stations in the 900 to 1000 kiloHertz segment of the AM broadcast band: on 910 kiloHertz here in Havana, we have Radio Metropolitana, a local capital city station that is on the air 24 hours, and on that same frequency 910 kiloHertz we also have Radio Cadena Agramonte from Camagüey city, that can be heard very well all
over eastern Cuba due to its transmitter´s excellent location. And here in Havana, on 950 kiloHertz we have the 10 kiloWatt Radio Reloj, the easiest Cuban station to identify because it sends out the letters R R on CW many times every day. You will hear a one per second pulse and the RR on CW from all of Radio Reloj´s network stations.

Cuba is now using its national fiber optics cables backbone distribution network, as well as the several microwave radio relay systems, so many times you will notice that Radio Reloj´s signals on different frequencies have a slight time delay due to the coding and decoding process of the digital systems used by the fiber optic equipment. By the way, this last item answers a question sent by listener Jeff, from Toronto, who asked why he could hear on two radios slightly different audio from Radio Reloj on 950 and 1020 kiloHertz.
Arnie Coro, Radio amateur CO2KK, Radio Havana Cuba, Dxers Unlimited´s weekend edition for 8-9 March 2008 via DXLD 8-031 (9/3-2008)



Mid-day MW bandscan from Carrier, OK.
I meant to do a low-noon MW bandscan close to Solstice, when residual skywave is possible, but did not get around to it until Feb 4, and by then it was almost too late. But I also wanted to check out what makes it by groundwave on my new caradio, not confused by skywave. I expeditioned a few miles NW of Enid to a spot near the junxion of State Hwys 45 and 132 SE of Carrier, where there is a brief stretch with no adjacent powerlines. On caradio with whip on fender, no DFing possible.
Main reference is the 2007-2008 NRC AM Log. Here is some of what I noted, skipping most strong and regular signals, between 1815 and 1905 UT, local mean noon being at 1832:
1700: at 1819 ``La Indomable, mil setecientos, es La Grande``. Spanish dominating an English station, fading in and out. Unlike most of the logs below, this is probably skywave, from KBGG Des Moines, listed with ``La Grande`` but not ``La Indomable`` slogan.
1690: at 1820, sports talk. Does not fit for Colorado with All-Kids, or Illinois with news/talk, but surely one or the other. Format changed?
1670: at 1820, weak distorted audio. May be Enid talking house.
1660: checked this first at 1815, as KXTR Kansas City is easy to recognize with classical, and often audible later in the afternoon when skywave has kicked in, but not now: ESPN station was dominating with ads for a CPA `downtown`, phone 241-9187 and 281-1003, atop KXTR classical with a SAH; 1818 CNN News; 1825 ID as ``1660 ESPN``. Those phones check for a CPA in Fargo ND, so certainly noon skywave from KQWB at well over a megameter.
1650 & 1630 blocked by splatter from local KFXY 1640.
1620: at 1821, sports news, good signal. Presumably KOZN Bellevue NE.
1610: at 1822, NWS relay with noise, cut off amid weather info, back to usual loop of local area attraxions around Great Salt Plains, TIS. This makes it into parts of Enid itself if noise is low enough.
1600: at 1823, at least two stations under dominant KUSH Cushing OK.
1570: at 1825, two stations, C&W probably KNDY Marysville KS; EZL probably KZLI Pryor OK, or KTAT Frederick OK.
1540: at 1826, Rush, over another talker. There are two Kansans here, Parsons being the talker, tho KXEL IA might have been in the mix by skywave.
1500: at 1827, preacher. Must be KPGM Pawhuska OK
1440: at 1828, weak Spanish, presumably KTNO University Park TX (Metroplex), 15 kW, but CP for 50 in daytime; IBOC QRM, probably from Tulsa KTBZ 1430 ``The Buzz``, 25 kW.
1420: at 1828, local political ad for Lone Wolf, ``Country 1420, KTJS``, midday report, from Hobart OK; IBOC QRM here too on what used to be a clear station on its fringe. (Quite a number of other small-town stations in OK & KS were doing local noon news hours; good to hear these still exist.)
1370: at 1829, nothing heard; was expecting usual KGNO Dodge City KS.
1360: at 1830, Ave Maria Radio, devotional by a priest. Two possibilities are listed on this frequency with EWTN! KAHS El Dorado KS, and KDJW Amarillo TX. 1831 into talk show ``The Doctor Is In``, YL with Catholic-oriented advice, 877-573-7825. Continuous hum on audio.
1320: at 1832, Radio Oklahoma, weather, ``Newstalk 1320``, so KCLI Clinton; back to Rush; over lo rumble, somebody off-frequency.
1260: at 1834, soul-ish music, but must be KWSH Wewoka, C&W listed.
1250: at 1835, Spanish, so KKHK Kansas City KS; [WREN Topeka missed].
1240: at 1835, slow SAH of 1 Hz or less between KADS Elk City OK and KFH Wichita. For many years, KADS was off-frequency with an audible het.
1210: at 1836, Oklahoma news, from KGYN Guymon. Day pattern is non-direxional so reaches Enid without cheating.
1200: at 1836, trace of a SAH, I suppose between WOAI TX and KFNW ND altho WRTO
Chicago or KYOO Bolivar MO might be involved.
1190: at 1836, ``AM 1190 KVSV``, Beloit KS, farm news.
1180: at 1837, Spanish, therefore KYOZ Bellevue NE.
1110: at 1838, KFAB Omaha NE, VG signal with Rush, and IBOC sidebands blocking 1120 and 1100.
1070: at 1838, semi-local KFTI Wichita, Paul Harvey at Page 3, so must have started around 1830. (I`ve noticed he is no longer between 1800 and 1830 on KRMG 740 Tulsa, either.)
1060: at 1839, fast SAH. Closest are Springfield MO and Van Buren AR; none of the three Texans are very close. Would settle for Pierre SD. Needs further checking, but KFTI 1070 can be a problem.
1040: at 1841, Rush from WHO Des Moines IA.
1030: at 1842, no IBOC heard, missing from WHO? Two stations, news / talk over music, possibly Spanish. KBUF Holcomb KS surely the former, tho KFAY Farmington/Fayetteville AR possible. Is KWFA Tye TX (Abilene) on yet? Does 50 kW KCTA Corpus Christi have any Spanish? Went back and checked this at 1857: talking over hymn, 1858 tentative ID for KWFA.
1010 & 990: at 1843, blocked by IBOC from KTOK-1000.
970: at 1846, religion, KCFO Tulsa or KHVN Fort Worth; far enough from local KGWA 960 to pull something past it.
950: at 1846, religion, no doubt KJRG Newton KS, ditto.
940: at 1844, trace of something under WKY-930 splash, probably KIXZ Amarillo which I have heard before somewhat west of Enid; no Kansans.
880: at 1845, plug for KRVN.com Lexington NE, mixing with a weaker station, probably KJOJ Conroe TX, (which is Vietnamese, but not enough audio to tell).
850: at 1846, Paul Harvey, so KOA in usual pre-noon timeslot; slow SAH with talk station, no doubt KJON Carrollton TX, hijacked from Anadarko OK, but at least that benefits KOA here.
840: at 1846, something there, but an unexpected line noise peak here, surely KTIC West Point NE, previously heard daytimes when it was something else. Rechecked at 1905, ad for Nebraska lottery.
830-730: due to noise and running out of time, skipped over, but nothing unusual expected.
720: at 1847, ad for Grand Central Station episode on The American Experience, WTTW, so definitely WGN. Of all the Chicago `clears` this is the only one still with a clear daytime shot to OK at well over a megameter, certainly by groundwave tnx to our excellent conductivity. Fortunately KSAH Universal City (San Antonio) TX does not bother in the daytime like it does at night, constant SAH battling with WGN.
710: at 1847, Rush mixing with another talker. Per NRC AM Log, KGNC Amarillo TX is the one with Rush, not KCMO Kansas City.
700: at 1848, ads in English mixed with Asian language, 214 area code, so KHSE Wylie TX (Metroplex), blocking any hope of WLW daytime.
680: at 1849, rodeo talk about NFR, presumably KFEQ St. Joe MO.
670: at 1850, religion, from KLTT Commerce/Denver CO, another long-haul daytime groundwave which can also be heard within Enid given low-noise location; trace of something else, presumably WSCR Chicago, which as WMAQ used to make it clearly on cold winter days` groundwave.
660: at 1851, KSKY Dallas, talk, with IBOC from WWLS-640 bleeding over here 20 kHz up.
650 & 630: ruined by WWLS IBOC; WSM and KHOW might otherwise make it.
620: at 1852, KMKI Disney Radio, Plano TX, music.
610: at 1852, KCSP Kansas City, sports, marred by IBOC from KMKI.
600: at 1852, two weak stations with SAH, probably WMT Cedar Rapids IA and KTBB Tyler TX. This is a relatively clear frequency for daytime DX.
590: at 1853, KXSP Omaha NE with sports, over something else, probably KLBJ Austin TX.
570: at 1853, usual mix of KLIF Dallas over WNAX Yankton SD. Unfortunately almost co-linear and can`t null out one or the other.
560: at 1854, Rush, presumably KWTO Springfield MO, seems with IBOC QRM; is that KLIF 570 now? No IBOC heard on 580, with WIBW strong.
550: at 1854, KFRM Salina KS, very strong as usual, but with something else underneath; KCRS Midland TX heard previously, but KLLV Breen CO might be possible now.
540: at 1855, usual mix of KDFT Ferris (Metroplex) TX in Spanish over KWMT Fort Dodge IA in English.
Glenn Hauser, OK, DX LISTENING DIGEST yg (9/2-2008)



Stories from past midnight.
I kinda promised some news once it stayed reading bright past midnight.
Well, it's just about bright enough to read the Panasonic tranny's digital display without a torch. It's 0040Z and I'm just back in to warm my hands on a cuppa.

First, LW. Norway and the continent on 153. Absolutely nothing on 162, not even a sneeze. The Brits were strong on 198 as were the Irish on 252. 234 was OK.

Up to the MW band. The Brits (and Scots) were booming in on 693, 810, 909, 1053, 1089, 1215 and 1341. 720 was well audible, 882 decent. 1215's fillers on 1197, 1233 and 1242 made it to here tonight. The Germans were strong, too, on 1269 and 1422. Strange hash on 1440, 1575 and 1593. DRM QRM? And this is just what I remember from a quick run over the band.
Reynir H. Stefánsson, Eastern Iceland (15/5-2007)



On the event of Radio Havana Cuba's 45 anniversary celebrated on May 1st, 2006, here is a report by Arnie Coro, radio amateur CO2KK, host of the twice weekly programme "DXers Unlimited" of Radio Havana Cuba, on the early days of RHC:
According to my research, the history of Radio Havana Cuba goes back as early as 1959. A Cuban delegation designated by the Revolutionary Government was attending an International Telecommunications Union World Administrative Conference that was sessioning in Geneva, Switzerland, at the Palais des Nations, the United Nations' main building in that Swiss city. Senior Engineer Carlos Julián Estrada Castro, one of my mentors, was there and he told me that one day the members of the Cuban delegation received a call from the Cuban Embassy at the United Nations organizations in Geneva. A diplomatic cable from Havana instructed the members of the delegation to find out about the possibilities of starting a Cuban international short wave radio service.
Engineer Estrada, who was very experienced in matters related to the use of the short wave radio spectrum, realized that right there in Switzerland; there was a world famous radio transmitter factory, the Swiss firm Brown Boveri Corporation. Estrada and other members of the Cuban delegation to the ITU Conference contacted Brown Boveri, and soon found out a very interesting information. Brown Boveri had several short wave transmitters ready to be shipped to a country in Africa, I believe it was Ethiopia, that had suddenly refused to receive the two 100 kilowatt and two ten kilowatt transmitters.
Estrada wired Havana, and in a few days, by the end of 1959, the deal was completed, and that's how Radio Havana Cuba received its first four transmitters, brand new from Switzerland, and they came together with several antenna systems that were included in the sale. About one year later, by the end of 1960, the Bauta transmitting station, about some 30 kilometers to the West of Havana was under construction.
By early January of 1961, one of the Brown Boveri 10 kilowatt transmitters was installed at a small provisional shed, used by the construction workers that were building the transmitting station. There were no steel towers to put up an antenna for the transmitters, so Engineer Jose Antonio Valladares talked to the local power utility and obtained six wooden poles, and he asked for the tallest ones that they had available. Valladares, who is Cuba's most experienced antenna specialist, knew very well that he needed no less than 20 meters to
install a dipole antenna for the 25 meter band that will put out a good signal to the Americas, but the wooden poles were only about 13 meters high.
Then someone at [sic] brought up the idea of making a taller mast by putting two poles into the ground and inserting a third one about half way in between the two lower ones. Using typical power company equipment and hardware, the two first masts that the station used went up, and in less than a week they were ready to support a full wave dipole antenna. Power had to be brought to the provisional building so that the 10-kilowatt transmitter could start operations, and because there was no link with the Radio Progreso downtown Havana studios, someone suggested installing a tape recorder and player right next to the transmitter.
Tests began by the first and second weeks of February of 1961 and on the 24th of February of that year, Onda Corta Experimental Cubana, the Cuban Experimental Short Wave went on the air with a one hour long program in Spanish that was repeated several times during the evening. All of us involved in the setting up of the station were delighted when we began to receive reports from friends in Latin America, Canada and the United States. The provisional installation was working quite well indeed, as we proceeded to install the second 10 kilowatt
transmitter and the first 100 kilowatt transmitter as the main building of the Bauta station was almost completed.
Why Cuba wanted to have the station on the air as soon as possible and with the best equipment available was something quite logical, we all knew that an armed invasion against our nation was in the works, and that having a short wave station on the air meant that the world could be informed directly about what was really happening. The period between the 24th of February and the 15th of April of 1961 saw engineers, technicians, electricians and the antenna crews working at a hectic pace to try to have all the equipment on the air and with the new antennas that had to be installed.
Engineer José Valladares was in charge of the design of several antennas, and of supervising the installation of the ones that were bought to Brown Boveri, he had among his crew a very young at that time radio enthusiast, that had just completed his senior high school and a radio and television training course. Yes, I was one of Valladares` pupils, at age 18, and you cannot imagine how much he taught to all of us that were fortunate to work with him and the other
senior engineers in charge of the project. On the 15th of April of 1961 everyone in Cuba learned about the air raids to three Cuban Air Force Bases, a prelude of the Bay of Pigs Invasion.
It was one day later, at the burial of the martyrs of the Revolution that were killed during the air raids that Fidel told the world about the existence of what was going to be Radio Havana Cuba. A day later, April 17th the infamous 25O6 Brigade organized, trained and supplied by the US Central Intelligence Agency, began landing at the Bay of Pigs, and immediately was challenged by the Cuban Rebel Army and militia troops that brought them to a total defeat in less than 72 hours. During the whole time that the invasion lasted, our experimental short wave station was on the air 24 hours, telling the world what was happening and providing to the many friends of the Cuban Revolution up to the minute information of what was happening in the Zapata swamp, the isolated area of Cuba carefully selected by the CIA for the landing of the mercenary forces.
The battle reports went on the air from the very Stara [start?] of the military operations against the invaders, and the last one, telling the world about the outstanding victory of the Cuban people was repeated many times, so that everyone could pick up our broadcasts. Sí
amigos, a few days later, on May Day, the first day of May of 1961, Cuba celebrated its victory over the CIA forces sent to invade our nation, and it was precisely on that day that our station went on the air, for the first time, using the name of Radio Havana Cuba.
A very small group of people were involved in the start up of Radio Havana Cuba, we worked up to 18 hours a day to try to finish installing the complex equipment. Never before Cuban engineers had worked with such powerful transmitters, as the only two high power AM
band broadcast transmitters that existed here were a pair of 50 kilowatt Westinghouse model 5OHG2 transmitters owned by Radio Progreso and Circuito CMQ National Networks. The first 100 kilowatt Brown Boveri was ready to operate just a few days before the Bay of Pigs
invasion, and it did play a very important role in making known to the world what was actually taking place at the Zapata swamp battlefield.
A few months later, the Bauta transmitting station phase one was completed, and we started to broadcast regularly in both Spanish and English, adding shortly after Portuguese and French. Several years later two new Russian built SNIEG transmitters were added to Bauta, as
well as more antennas to make it possible to broadcast not only to Latin America, the Caribbean and North America, but also to Europe. Sí amigos, the history of Radio Havana Cuba is full of very interesting anecdotes. This program today is my humble tribute to all of those who are no longer with us, having passed away since the station first went on the air, and who make possible that Cuba's voice may be heard all around the world.
With Courtesy to Arnie Coro CO2KK, Dxers Unlimited, Radio Havana Cuba (Feb World DX Club Contact via DXLD 7-014 (2/2-2007)



Radio is the most powerful medium of communication in Angola with approximately 80 per cent of country listening (HRW, 2004). In 2000, Angola had 21 AM radio stations, six FM stations, seven shortwaves, and 815,000 radio sets (World Factbook, 2006). As part of the MPLA's
campaign strategy for the 1992 elections, the government allowed "trusted businessmen" to create four private radio stations in Luanda, Benguela, Cabinda, and Lubango (Expresso, 20 December 2003).
Radio Nacional de Angola (RNA) is a 24 hour state-run radio station with a monopoly of national radio broadcasts. It is the only broadcaster to offer programmes in indigenous African languages such as Bantu.
The equipment used by RNA is "fairly advanced" with new computers and internet connection in Luanda (IMS, MISA, and AMARC, 2003). In Luanda, the news department has 60-65 reporters. The director-general, Manuel Rabelais, is also the social communications minister. Journalists claim the government favours RNA in the allocation of new broadcast frequencies (HRW, 2004). RNA tends to pay close attention to official activities, but seldom reports on opposition initiatives and almost never with any depth (Lusa, 15 August 2000). The station
recently has become more open to debate and call-in programmes, but cuts off programmes when guests or callers comment on sensitive issues.
RNA has five stations. The two with the widest reach are Canal A and Radio Cinco.
RNA's home page calls Canal A the "standard-bearer" of the RNA group. The station broadcasts nationwide via several frequencies: 93.5 FM; 944, 1088, and 1367 AM; and 4950, 9720, and 11955 shortwave. Its"Manhã Informativa" [Morning News] programme from 0600 to 0900 daily includes a question-and-answer session with a public official every morning and an in-depth treatment of the news items that are likely to feature prominently during the day, but according to Angolense, the programme is "little more than a menu serving the government's daily agenda" (15-22 February 2003). News bulletins air at 1300 and 2000 local time daily. The popular "Tendências e Debates" - a call-in interview programme featuring a panel of experts from 0930 to 1200 on Saturdays - is a response to Radio Ecclésia's popular call-in debate programme, according to HRW.
RNA's Radio Cinco broadcasts only sports news on 94.5 FM. It can be heard in Benguela, Lobito, Huambo, Namibe, Cabinda, Uige, and Dundo (HRW, 2004).
RNA's three other stations broadcast only in Luanda.
Radio Luanda is a news and information station broadcasting on 99.9 FM and 1010 AM.
Radio FM Stereo plays only music on 96.5 FM.
Radio Ngola Yetu, a popular station focusing mainly on sports, targets Angolans who speak indigenous languages. The station also airs programmes in Portuguese, French, English, and Lingala. It broadcasts on 101.4 FM, 944 AM, and 3375 and 7245 [sic] shortwave.
RNA also broadcasts nationally via Emissora Provincial Cuando-Cubango- Menogue on 4780 shortwave; Emissora Provincial da Huila-Lubango on 4820 shortwave; Emissora Provincial do Namibe on 5015 shortwave; and Emissora Provincial de Benguela on 5043 shortwave.
Roman Catholic Radio Ecclésia is an FM station launched in 1954. RE initially had a licence to broadcast nationally but had to stop operating when the MPLA government confiscated its assets in 1978. In 1997, RE began broadcasting again in the Luanda area only. It has been seeking a licence to broadcast nationally but the government repeatedly has refused. Radio Ecclésia broadcasts 24 hours a day on 97.5 FM in Luanda and currently employs some 36 journalists, including 11 correspondents located in several provinces.
RE is known for giving "space to a wide range of opinions from politicians and civil society" and to reports on "controversial" government actions (HRW, 2004).
Lisbon-based weekly Expresso said that "daring and irreverent" RE has the advantage over state-controlled media because it allows citizens [to] criticize government on the air, particularly during its popular call-in programmes (20 December 2003).
Lisbon-based newsletter Africa Monitor said the government "fears" Radio Ecclésia and perceives it to be "the most bothersome" source because of its "critical independence" (8 August 2003).
Luanda Antena Comercial (LAC) was the country's first private radio station, founded just before the 1992 elections with alleged discreet financial support from the MPLA to assist the party during the election campaign. Privately owned Luanda weekly Agora reported that
despite LAC's recognized efforts to remain independent, the station has become more controlled by the government (15-22 July) and its reports are often nearly identical to state-run RNA's. The station is directed by Luisa Fancony and it broadcasts on 95.5 FM from 0600 to
0100 daily in Luanda only. Listeners also can access programming from its website, http://www.ebonet.net/lac/
Other private radio stations:
Radio Escola and Radio CEFOJOR (Journalists Training Centre) operate in Luanda and are designed to train new professionals and young radio journalists, respectively (HRW, 2004). Four other local private radio stations broadcast in the country: Radio Morena and Radio Benguela broadcast only in Benguela, Radio 2000 broadcasts only in Lubango, and Radio Commercial de Cabinda broadcasts only in Cabinda. HRW says these radio stations "seldom"
broadcast material critical of the government and the only critical voices come from people airing their views on the radio.
UNITA's radio station, Radio Despertar, has been waiting for government permission to start broadcasting since February 2004, but the party reportedly does not expect the government to allow the station to begin broadcasting before the upcoming elections (Agora, 11-18 September 2004). The station will be directed by Alexandre Neto Salombe, a journalist who has worked for RNA in Huila and Huambo and also for Radio Ecclésia and LAC (Angolense, 23-30 September). It will broadcast on 91.0 FM and its studios will be in Viana, on the outskirts of Luanda (4 September).
Source: BBC Monitoring research in English 14 Dec 06 via DXLD 6-187 (19/12-2006)


The antenna park "DX 183", 12 kms from Jammerbugten/Skagerrak in Denmark, is open for everyone, who is interested in listening to distant radio stations on long wave, medium wave, in tropical bands, on short wave or even on FM.
A lot of beverage antennas are useable. They pick up signals in those directions they are constructed. 

Degrees Area Length Notices
65° China/Philipp./Indonesia/Australia 80 m
95° India/Pakistan 80 m
110° Iran 80 m
130° Israel/Saudi Ariabia/Somalia 110 m
150° Egypt/East Africa 160 m
180° Central North- and West Africa 140 m
180° South 120 m longwire on ground, used for phasing
195° West Africa-South 160 m
210° West Africa-West 160 m
220° West Africa-West/East Brasil 120 m
230° East Brasil/Argentina 90 m (290 m during winter season)
240° Central Brasil/Paraguay/Chile 80 m
250° North Brasil/Bolivia 80 m (275 m during winter season)
260° Venezuela/Peru 80 m
270° Caribbean/Colombia 75 m (270 m during winter season)
280° Caribbean/central America/Newfoundland 75 m
290° East Canada/East-YSA/Florida 80 m (270 m during winter season)
300° Quebec/East-USA/Mexico 90 m
315° Midwest/California/Mexico 110 m
330° Southwest Canada 180 m (550 m during winter season)
345° Northwest Canada/Alaska 340 m (460 m during winter season
360° Alaska/Hawaii 330 m
110°/290° Iran 25 m L-Antenna ca 4 m high
Circumpolar reception 6 m vertical antenna


Height of Beverage-Antennas are ca 1,5 m. They are mounted on sticks and poles. All are connected with coaxcable (RG 213 or RG 58) at a distance to the house between 50 m and 100 m.
FM: 8-element Antenna (horizontal in ca 7 m height) and 4-element Antenna (vertical in ca 5 m height). Both on one rotor.
TV: Band-I-Channel 2 (directed to SE 130°) and -Channel 4 (directed to SW 220°) Antennas, ca 6 m height, no rotor.
Reception by satellite (digital): More than 20 TV-satellites are available.
It is a kind of low noise system. Beside that, the area is free of heavy QRM. Only some electrical fences are a little audible, mostly during day time.
Take your own receiver to DX 183! And if possible bring along your own coaxial cable (with PL connection) and antenna switch.
For information about accomodation and how to reach the antenna park see http://www.wilhelm-herbst-verlag.de/DX183/DXer/index.htm (in German only) or contact the owner Wilhelm Herbst on phone/fax +45 98215191.
Ydun Ritz (29/8-2004)