Regarding why Gold, Manchester is heard in Canada with only 5 kW on 1458 kHz it is due to a highly directional antenna. 1457 and later 1458 kHz was used by several BBC local stations. Thus directional antennas were put in use located due east of Manchester. The article doesen’t state what beam is used but in the old days BBC Radio Manchester had to protect stations in Birmingham, London, Newcastle and Whitehaven (Cumbria).
Karl-Erik Stridh (2023-10-14)